Questions to ask yourself when looking for an elementary school

Choosing the right elementary school for your child can seem like a task of mammoth proportions. Combine the painstaking process of sifting through the befuddling range of options with the relentless stream of often unsolicited advice, the process can become quite hectic and confusing. With the burgeoning influx of information and advice, it becomes necessary for parents to determine priorities and create a streamlined process to ensure the right decision is made.

As an example, while a school that provides a luxurious environment may attract you because of its professed comforts for your child, you cannot afford to overlook the school’s teaching ideologies. Similarly, a school with a sound teaching ideology also needs to have a secure and well-guarded school environment to ensure the safety of your child.

What follows is a list of the most important questions that you should get answers to when looking for the right elementary school for your child.

  • Do the school’s location and schedule suit you?

This question is usually the first point of inquiry by parents when evaluating different schools. The school should be at a location that is easily accessible by your car or the transportation services provided by the school.

The school’s schedule is another important factor to take into consideration. A school that starts too early or too late for your schedule could make it problematic choice.

  • How secure are the school infrastructure and environment?

Not only should the school’s premises be well-guarded but the school should also employ strict security policies that assure a safe and well-regulated environment for all of it’s students.

  • What is the student-teacher ratio?

Whereas older kids may be able to learn effectively even when the student-teacher ratio is high, younger students need more individualized attention. It is recommended that the student-teacher ratio from kindergarten to third grade should be up to 22:1 while it could go up to 30:1 for grade four and five.

  • What are the school’s teaching ideologies and methodologies?

It is usually beneficial to opt for a school that has concrete ideologies to guide their teaching process.Elementary schools with clear teaching ideologies can help you assess if their teaching style is beneficial for your child. For instance, some schools lay emphasis on child-directed activities while others focus on teacher-facilitated projects.

  • What are the teachers’ qualifications?

Get to know how qualified the teachers at the school are. This can give you an insight into the quality of education provided at the school.

  • Do teachers attend regular training seminars?

Get to know if teachers update their skills and knowledge through training sessions and seminars conducted by the school or outside institutions.

Taking these basic considerations into account can make choosing the right elementary school for your child a more efficient process. One of Brooklyn’s top elementary schools is the Williamsburg Northside Lower School. It is known for its child-centric approach toelementary education. This Brooklyn elementary school has an emergent curriculum that takes shape according to each child’s individual and constantly evolving interests, ideas and curiosities.

Rising Demand of Overseas Education Consultants in India

A large number of Indian students nowadays prefer getting their education in abroad because of new opportunities opening up there. It has become easier for them to bear high fee structure and high cost of living due to easy availibility of loans. This increased number of students interested in making global career have contributed greatly in the demand of education consultants by leaps and bounds. Upon realizing the probable importance of Overseas Education Consultants in India, the Government of India has founded the organization ‘Education Consultants India Limited (Ed. CIL)’ in the year 1981. The body was formed with an aim to offer guidance and right direction to prospective Indian students.

With the increase in number of courses available and subjects offered in various streams, the requirement of education consultants has tremendously felt by the students in recent years. The motto of educational consultants is to provide specialized information on the country where the students would want to study, the university they would want to join and course they would want to opt. Counsellors are there to councel students who are not able to decide what course should they opt and how enormous is the scope of a particular course. The unlimited options available in the courses offered to the students today has made them extremely cautious and choosy about their academics. Also, peer pressure is strongly associated with the level of success in academics and their is a great deal of peer-pressure that students are facing throughout their career building these days from family, friends or society. The situation arises the need to visit the educational consultants to seek information, suggestions and idea from those counsellors which are necessary in building a right career path. Overseas educational consultants help these students to get their dream fulfilled who want to seek education from foreign countries by getting them admitted in a renowned university situated across easily. They also assist them in completing the necessary formalities while getting admission in an institute outside. Education consultants in India have set up their branches in every corner of the nation, emcompassing major cities and towns, with their popularity increasing and demand rising among the students in India. However, to some extent, with the advancement in the technology and easy accessibility of Internet facility, there are a lot of information avauilable on the net from where the students can get immediate information without a need to visit those consultants.

Many Education consultant agencies have started offering various services nowadays in addition to providing guidance and information. One of the services includes coaching forentrance examinations such as GMAT, TOEFL, IELTS and others. They also conduct personality development programs that helps students to deal better with group discussions, campus interviews and personal interviews.  Education Consultants offering required assistance to the students are blessings for them in the era of excessive information and abundance of options available.

Still Don’t Know What a Charter School Is?

For over 22 years charter schools have existed in this country yet I am still asked the question: “Just what is a charter school?” Or worse, someone thinks they know what it is and their thoughts are far off base.  Not knowing and misinformation about charter schools is a common experience for many.  For those that do know, many in that group are divided about the values or dangers of the role charter schools play in education.


A charter school is a form of public education.  Each state legislates how the school is granted a charter to begin receiving public funds and how the school is held accountable.  Students enrolled in a charter school are the same as if they were enrolled in that state’s traditional public school.  Academic requirements, graduation requirements and all federal laws for public education are basically the same for a charter school student.  So, why bother? Why have two separate education systems?


Well, initially the thought was that by creating competition in the public school marketplace, parents were given a choice.  No longer was expensive private school tuition or homeschooling the only option a family had.  Charter schools were set loose to become innovative.  Many were created with the mission to replicate a better version of traditional schools.  Others were created with a specific mission of reaching a targeted group of students whose needs might not be met in a larger system.  For instance, one school in Texas was initially created to provide public school for a travelling group of student performers.  That school has since evolved to include any student performer.  Currently the trend seems to be aimed at reaching at-risk students that are not successful in traditional environments.


This education experiment has unleashed a plethora of problems.  Local authorities charged with overseeing charters weren’t clear what the rules would be and they issued charters to well-meaning educators that most often were not even told what those rules were either.  Everyone charged out of the gate with best intentions.  Rules changed, communication was weak or non-existing, training was poor and these infants in public education were left to run before they could walk and compete with public schools that in many case were in existence for over 100 years.


Charter holders recall events when their schools were sent state agency auditors to examine the school when the auditors themselves did not know what acharter school was.  Yet their reports would stand as the definitive evaluation of whether or not the school was performing to the standards that were required, standards that were not even applicable to the school in question.


In spite of all the growing pains, successful stories have sprung from many of the nations’charter school students and their families.  Families without hope found success in the local community charter school specialized to meet their needs.  Charters are after all a school of choice, so many would ask why they are not left to free enterprise and rather than be held to the same standards as a traditional school, why not just let the free market determine their sustainability?  Why drain precious resources evaluating a school when the parents and students are fully capable of deciding?


Then there is the much more controversial question.  Are charter schools a danger to public education, as we know it?  Quite possibly. Competition and choice do bring change.  In this instance, the controversy lies in whether or not such change will benefit our futures.  While small community schools were the first wave of charter education, large corporate management companies have begun to see the financial benefit of owning and operating  “chain” schools across the country.  A small hand full of large investor/philanthropists such as the Walton’s (WalMart), the Dell foundation, the Gates Foundation and Michael Milken (formerly known as the junk bond king) are all heavily vested in the charter school industry.


With so much controversy, so much positive and negative publicity, it is a challenge for the small school model that was initially thought of as incubators of innovation in public education.  Today’s parent has access to so much information to make informed decisions about their child’s school.  Unfortunately, they may be reading more misinformation than they realize.

Want To Apply For Ross Medical School? Know The General Medical School Basics First

Are you confused about choosing the right medical school? It must be tough for you to make a quick decision because your entire career depends on this selection. If you dream of attending the top medical school, be prepared to face multiple challenges while making the utmost choice. This is a tricky process, however following the right steps would lead you to the ultimate goal. All medical schools are different in terms of location, mission, programs, number of students, size and several other aspects. Based on your aim and interest, it becomes your personal choice to select and apply for a particular medical school.

Begin the procedure by analyzing your grades. Look what you have in-stored for these medical schools. Many applications are not even considered because they don’t match with the requirements and medical school averages. Every year, many applicants feel disappointed by the rejection of their application. For some, the reason is quite obvious, but few applicants remain confused about the reason. Don’t overestimate your grades and before applying make sure that you review average MCAT scores and GPAs that are accepted at that particular medical school. Another important thing which you need to understand is that medical schools want applicants who have participated in the extra-curricular activities related to medicine and can clearly mention their learnings and observations. So, you have to be fit for this requirement too.

When it comes to selecting a medical school, know what is important for you. Consider the aspects like geography, climate & environment, campus, finances like scholarships & financial aids, curriculum, grading policy, facilities, class size and many more, while choosing a medical school. Ignoring these factors can cause a lot of issues in the future. Suppose, if you don’t pay attention to the location at the time of selection and select a school quiet far from your place, it would become difficult to cover the distance in the time ahead. So, consider each element very carefully.

Look for online websites that provide rankings of medical schools. There are many online sources that provide rankings on the basis of multiple factors. You would easily find medical schools like Ross medical school, Stanford University Medical School, etc. Visit the USMLE forum if you want to know about examinations, question papers, study material and other information before your examination.

A good medical school will act as the foundation of your career. So, invest proper time and consideration in selecting and applying for a medical school.

International Schools in India

International schools in India offer you an Education in English. The curriculum varies from the International Baccalaureate (I.B.), which includes PYP, MYP and for higher education Lancers International School also conducts CIE Certified (IGCSE) examination systems.

One of the best international schools in India is Lancers International School. Lancers International School is committed to provide a rich and challenging learning environment based on an international curriculum to help each student reach his or her intellectual potentials. Lancers International School has 5.4 acres of land in DLF, Phase-V, Sector-53, Gurgaon, Haryana.Lancers International School is committed to provide a rich and challenging learning environment based on an international curriculum to help each student reach his or her intellectual potentials. We pledge to offer a range of subjects and learning opportunities to meet and nurture different needs and interests and empower students to become responsible contributors to their community/world. It is the latest in the string of International establishments in all international school in India rolled out by Lancer’s group but it is the fourth in the chain of Lancers Schools.

An International school in India is loosely defined as a school that promotes international education in India; either by adopting an international curriculum such as that of the International Baccalaureate and CIE, or by following a national curriculum different from that of the country the school is located in. These international schools in India cater mainly to students who are not nationals of the host country, such as the children of the staff of international businesses, international organizations, foreign embassies, missions, or missionary programs. Many local students attend these schools to learn the language of the international school and to obtain qualifications for employment or higher education in a foreign country.

The first International schools were founded in the latter half of the 19th century in countries such as Japan, Switzerland and Turkey and now whit the help of international schools in India such as Lancers International School your child get best level of education .Early International school in India were set up with the help of nations having large interests in the hosting nation.

International schools in India typically use curricula based on the school’s country of origin .Many international schools in India use curricula specially designed for international school such as the International General Certificate of Secondary Education or the IB Diploma Programme. Like other schools, international schools in India teach the subjects such as language arts, mathematics, the sciences, humanities, the arts, physical education, information technology, and design technology. More recent developments specifically for primary school include the IB’s Primary Years Programme (PYP) and the fast growing International Primary Curriculum (IPC). The International Preschool Curriculum (IPC) is increasingly being adopted by early year departments of international schools and international preschools.

Teachers of international school in India such as Lancers international school nurtured your children’s with great energy. This all teacher are certified and trained by these International education boards such as International Baccalaureate (I.B.), Cambridge International Education (CIE) and from these International boards lot of inspection was conducted to this international school in India to take care of your child future plan.

Online Education – Education Fashionable


Time-management may be the key to achievement in the busy world of today’s. How one handles her or his period decides the achievement quotient which may be the reason training that is online identification getting reputation that is enormous. It’s being a remarkably popular style of training in just about all areas of the planet because online training provides unparalleled versatility and also the pupils and students may handle period consistent with their additional goals. Online education’s increasing recognition has led to the institution of many online academic establishments providing other learning options along with online diploma programs.

Many people harbored the misunderstanding that online education’s benefits are limited just for students and these pupils who’d a recognised report of previous achievements. This resulted in the fact that online training assists just those individuals who have use of contemporary way of conversation as Web and computer. Nevertheless, whilst the myths associated with online schooling are being increased by the consciousness about numerous settings of online schooling are offering method to acceptability to instruction and education.

Changing perception

It’s a chat of yesteryear when individuals regarded on-line style of training like a fast method of obtaining good levels or receiving a diploma. Previously, the respected academic establishments not offered online training. Nevertheless, using the growing recognition of education that is online, establishments providing online programs are properly-founded organizations plus their majority possess a prosperous expertise to supply education. It’s worth mentioning, that the many planetis leading academic establishments are currently providing online training programs on the wide selection of topics.

Development drivers

Nowadays, all of the certified online training programs have gifted teachers and academics of reputation within their particular expertise. This ensures understanding that is qualitative. The pupils joining online training programs, could be guaranteed of benefits that were certain. Furthermore, online training is much more aggressive and more fascinating when comparing to the standard training methods.

Companies’ perspective

Truly, several companies were plus some of these continue to be having questions concerning the worth of training that is online. Nevertheless, with change in rising and belief recognition, their value has been recognized by a significant number of companies. Today the companies think about the degrees properly and from certified -founded online academic organizations of reputation. Furthermore, people who register for education’s growing number has transformed the companies’ notion and today they easily think about online education’s benefits.

Some study studies explain that technology-oriented sectors such as for instance, conversation, computers, advertising and press have began to take the applicants having diploma programs that are online from respected and certified establishments.

Online Education Level – A Thriving Field That Bring You


Have you been type of individual who loves to use kids? Are you likes to training to young adults and providing instruction? Have you been a great communicator particularly with kids? Then training diploma can help you to achieve the abilities and improved you understanding in training area should you responded yes towards the concerns above. Thus, enable your job to improve employed in training areas.

Wellness field and the thriving training provides several careers that include dealing with youngsters and kids. Based on Labor’s U.S. Bureau, the wellness and training field will develop by 30.6 percent between 2014 and today – than every other sectors. Viewing the development that is stimulating in training area, generate one will be brought by a web-based training diploma to a better future.

Improve or so as start your job in education-related areas, you have to locate a degrees that are connected; there are universities provide diploma and lots of exclusive online colleges in training and training. One of the online colleges that offer numerous online training diploma programs include:

Capella University Grasp of Technology in Training concentrate on region in primary class teaching, sophisticated coaching in arithmetic, extra class teaching, sophisticated coaching in digital college teaching, instructor management, and technology. Grasp of Technology in Training with focus in Coaching and Program is just a specific master level provides to these certified K12 educators who seeking to acquire crucial abilities through cooperation and theoretical research with experienced professionals. You’ll obtain processes and resources to assist your area style checks and educational designs that concentrate on student success that is growing. Grasp of Technology with focus in Training in Management in Academic Management, provide to these K12 educators who’re searching for training job development in college administration.
Walden University Online region is included by grasp training degrees Grades K-6, in training management Primary Reading & Mathematics and K5 mathematics which offer you the crucial abilities and understanding to achievement in academic area.
University of Phoenix University of the education master levels of Phoenix are primarily concentrate on management and education management, education engineering specific in computer training.
You then must search for education plans if you should be thinking about early childhood training provide Sullivan University, by Lehigh Valley School, Hesser College, Rasmussen College. Because the launch of idea “Training begin with Era 0”; child-care management and the youth training related professions have been in a development that is thriving. Pupils who graduate having a youth education diploma often visit function soon because of popular within this area after college.
If you should be coo for training, possibilities properly and for significant -paid work abound. Various other job options include: Pediatric Rehabilitation Consultant, Children Childhood and Family Counselor Child Doctor, and Play Specialist.

In a nutshell, the data show academic specialists are usually sought after and the training area is within the thriving pattern. You will be prepared by online training levels using the required abilities and obtain you achievement within this extremely need career market.

Online Education VS Classroom Education


Online instruction VS Classroom

Is online instruction tantamount to classroom training? Some of the time it is. Now and then it isn’t. At last, it is a defective inquiry that erroneously endeavors to name one type of instruction as more predominant than the other. This essentially isn’t the situation. The better inquiries are, ‘the manner by which do we innovatively meet the instructive needs of all understudies?’, and how would we make data as fascinating and open to all understudies. The answer isn’t in picking online or classroom training. The answer is in selecting an individualized training arrangement for every understudy. To perform this, the main thing to do is consider the characteristics, both great and terrible, of both types of instruction.

The Attributes of Classroom Based Educational Programs

Classroom based training includes being physically present in a classroom with different understudies and an educator. This is an awesome domain for understudies who look for participation and joint effort with others. The classroom environment is likewise fitting for understudies who may battle with diversions without having the teacher and different understudies physically present. There are numerous extra advantages to going to a conventional classroom based school. Understudies can associate with each other. They can participate on additional curricular exercises. At long last, they can search out their educators for one on one guideline on classroom and hands on activities.

The Attributes of Online Educational Programs

Comfort might be the most prominent normal for an online instructive project. Understudies can sign in whenever it might suit them to do their coursework. Notwithstanding this, numerous online instructive projects are self-guided. This implies understudies can advance as fast or as gradually as they might want. Both of these traits make online training alluring to individuals who work or have families. Lamentably, to a few, online instruction can feel segregating. Additionally, understudies who need assistance frequently need to hold up to have their inquiries replied by their teacher. This can bring about deferrals in effectively finishing an online course. Be that as it may, understudies can regularly spare cash by taking courses online in light of the fact that they don’t need to drive to class.

What Students Should Consider When Making a Decision

At the point when understudies choose if online or classroom instruction is best for them, they have to contemplate a few things. To start with, what will work best around their family and work routines. Will they appreciate the association and talk that can happen in a classroom domain, or is the accommodation and self-managed environment of an online course the approach? Obviously, not each classroom environment or online course is the same. There are numerous distinctions that should be thought about for each particular course and each particular circumstance.

Considering Hybrid Options

At times, understudies might not need to pick amongst online and classroom based training. Numerous schools offer classes that consolidate both online and classroom based instruction. In these classes, understudies regularly get a portion of the guideline on the web, yet then meet as a class for lab work or different ventures. Another alternative is that the teacher meets with understudies in little gatherings for guideline and coaching. E-learning, innovation that permits understudies to partake in classroom adapting remotely is another choice

Special Education, Public School Law & Educational Laws and Policies, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis

William Alan Kritsonis, PhD


Public School Law & Educational Laws and Policies




The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the law that provides your child with the right to a free, appropriate public education (FAPE). The purpose of the IDEA is “to ensure that all children with disabilities have available to them a free appropriate public education that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for further education, employment, and independent living…” 20 U.S.C. 1400(d) (Wrightslaw: Special Education Law, 2nd Edition, page 20). The Board of Education v. Rowley case is significant because it established the principle that schooldistricts are not required to maximize the potential of a child but provide some educational benefit to the child and how courts would examine future disputes under IDEA (Walsh, Kemerer, and Maniotis, 2005).

Case One

United States Supreme Court



AMY ROWLEY, by her parents, ROWLEY et al.

No. 80 – 1002


Plaintiffs – Petitioners: Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District, Westchester County, et al.

Defendant – Respondent: Amy Rowley, by her parents, Rowley, et., al.


The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (IDEA), provides federal money to assist state and local agencies in educating handicapped children, and federally fund States in compliance with extensive goals and procedures. The Act represents an ambitious federal effort to promote the education of handicapped children, and was passed in response to Congress’ perception that a majority of handicapped in the United States “were either totally excluded from schools or [were] sitting idly in regular classrooms awaiting the time when they were old enough to ‘drop out.'” The Acts evolution and major provisions shed light on the question of statutory interpretation which is at the heart of this case.


Congress first addressed the problem of education the handicapped in 1966 when it amended the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 to establish a grant program “for the purpose of assisting the States in the initiation, expansion, and improvement of programs and projects for the education of handicapped children. That program was repealed in 1970 by the Education for the Handicapped Act, Pub. L. No. 91-230, 84 Star, 175, Part B of which established a grant program similar in purpose to the repealed legislation. Neither the 1966 nor 1970 legislation contained specific guidelines for state use of the grant money; both were aimed primarily at stimulating the States to develop educational resources and to train personnel for educating the handicapped.

Dissatisfied with the progress being made under these earlier enactments, and spurred by two district court decisions holding that handicapped children should be given access to a public education, Congress in 1974 greatly increased federal funding for education of the handicapped and for the first time required recipient States to adopt “a goal of providing full educational opportunities to all handicapped children.” Pub. L. 93-380, 88 Stat. 579, 583 (1974) (the 1974 statue). The 1974 statute was recognized as an interim measure only, adopted “in order to give the Congress an additional year in which to study what if any additional Federal assistance [was] required to enable the States to meet the needs of handicapped children.” H.R. Rep. No. 94-332, supra, p.4. The ensuing year of study produced the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975.

In order to qualify for federal financial assistance under the Act, a State must demonstrate that it “has in effect a policy that assures all handicapped children the right to a free appropriate public education.” 20 U.S.C. 1412(1). The “free appropriate public education” required by the Act is tailored to the unique needs of the handicapped child by means of an ‘individualized educational program” (IEP). In addition to the state plan and the IEP already described, the Act imposes extensive procedural requirements upon State receiving federal funds under its provisions. Parents or guardians of handicapped children must be notified of any proposed change in “the identification, evaluation, or educational placement of the child or the provision of a free appropriate public education to the child,” and must be permitted to being a complaint about “any matter relating to” such evaluation and education. 1415(b)(1)(D) and (E).6 Complaints brought by parents or guardians must be resolved at “an impartial due process hearing,” and appeal to the State educational agency must be provided if the initial hearing is held at the local or regional level. Thus, although the Act leaves to the States the primary responsibility for developing and executing educational programs for handicapped children, it imposes significant requirements to be followed in the discharge of that responsibility. Compliance is assured by provisions permitting the withholding of federal funds upon determination that a participating state or local agency has failed to satisfy therequirements of the Act, 1414(b)(A), 1416, and by the provision for judicial review. At present, all States except New Mexico receive federal funds under the portions of the Act at issue today.



Amy Rowley is a deaf student in New York.  Amy has minimal residual hearing and is an excellent lipreader.  During the year before she started attending Furnace Woods School, Amy’s parents and school administrators met and decided to place her in a regular kindergarten classroom to determine what supplemental services would be necessary to her education.  Several members of the administration took a course in sign-language interpretation, and a teletype machine was installed in the principal’s office to facilitate communication with her parents who are also deaf.  After Amy was placed temporarily in the regular classroom, it was determined that she should stay in that class, but be provided with an FM hearing aid to amplify words.  Amy successfully finished her kindergarten year.

Before Amy entered first grade, an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) was prepared, which provided that Amy should continue to receive her education in the regular classroom and use the FM hearing aid, she should also receive instruction from a tutor for the deaf for one hour each day and from a speech therapist for three hours each week.  The Rowleys agreed with parts of this plan, but insisted that Amy also be provided a qualified sign-language interpreter in all of her academic classes instead of the assistance proposed in other parts of the IEP.

An interpreter had been placed in Amy’s kindergarten class for a 2-week experimental period, but the interpreter had reported that Amy did not need his services at that time.  The same conclusion was reached by the school for Amy’s first grade year.  An independent examiner also agreed with the administrators’ determination that an interpreter was not necessary because Amy was achieving educationally, academically, and socially without such assistance.  Amy performs better than the average child in her class and is advancing easily from grade to grade.  However, she understands less of what goes on in the class than she could if she were not deaf and so she is not learning as much, or performing as well academically, as she would without her handicap.


The Court stated that a “free appropriate public education” is one which consists of educational instruction specially designed to meet the unique needs of the handicapped child, supported by such services as are necessary to permit the child “to benefit” from the instruction.  If personalized instruction is being provided with sufficient supportive services to allow the child to benefit from the instruction, and the other items on the definitional checklist are satisfied, the child is receiving a “free public education.”  Absent in the statute is any substantive standard prescribing the level of education to be accorded handicapped children.

“By passing the Act, Congress sought primarily to make public education available to handicapped children.  But in seeking to provide such access to public education, Congress did not impose upon the States any greater substantive educational standard than would be necessary to make such access meaningful.”  Board of Education v. Rowley, 458 U.S. 176 at 192.  The Court says the intent of the act was more to open the

Higgins, Green, Reece

door of pubic education than to guarantee the level of education once inside.  The Court further states that whatever Congress meant by an “appropriate” education, it did not mean a potential-maximizing education.  It did not mean the State had to provide specialized services to maximize each child’s potential “commensurate with the opportunity provided other children.”  The basic floor of opportunity provided by the Act is access to specialized instruction and related services which are individually designed to provide educational benefit to the handicapped child.


Implicit in the congressional purpose of providing access to a “free appropriate public education” is the requirement that the education to which access is provided be sufficient to confer some educational benefit upon the handicapped child. It would do little good for Congress to spend millions of dollars in providing access to public education only to have the handicapped child receive no benefit from that education. The statutory definition of “free appropriate public education,” in addition to requiring that States provide each child with “specially designed instruction,” expressly requires the provision of “such . . . supportive services . . . as may be required to assist a handicapped child to benefit from special education.” 1401(17) (emphasis added). We therefore conclude that the “basic floor of opportunity” provided by the Act consists of access to specialized instruction and related services which are individually designed to provide educational benefit to the handicapped child.


The determination of when handicapped children are receiving sufficient educational benefits to satisfy the requirements of the Act presents a more difficult problem. The Act requires participating States to educate a wide spectrum of handicapped children, from the marginally hearing-impaired to the profoundly retarded palsied. It is clear that the benefits obtainable by children at one end of the spectrum will differ dramatically form those obtainable by children at the other end, with infinite variations in between. One child may have little difficulty competing successfully in an academic setting with nonhandicapped children while another child may encounter great difficulty in acquiring even the most basic of self-maintenance skills. We do not attempt today to establish any one test for determining the adequacy of educational benefits conferred upon all children covered by the Act. Because in this case we are presented with a handicapped child who is receiving substantial specialized instruction and related services, and who is performing above average in the regular classrooms of a public school system, we confine our analysis to the situation.


William Allan Kritsonis, PhD




An important provision of Public Law 94-142 (IDEA) is that all handicapped students be educated in the least restrictive environment (LRE) (Heron & Skinner, 1981).  Federal law expresses a strong preference for placing the child with disabilities in the setting in which that child would be served if there were no disability (Walsh, Kemerer, and Maniotis, 2005). However, these requirements continue to generate complex and interesting questions from the field. In particular, this report focuses on questions that have been raised about the relationship of IDEA’s LRE requirements to “inclusion.”  If the goal of IDEA is to mainstream students with disabilities, despite efforts made from administrators, specialists, and staff, how can this be achievable if the child has not made academic progress in the regular classroom?

Case One

United States Court of Appeals,

Fourth Circuit.

950 F.2d. 156

18 IDELR 350

Shannon CARTER, a minor, by and through her father, and next friend, Emory D. Carter, et al., Plaintiffs-Appellee,


FLORENCE COUNTY SCHOOL DISTRICT FOUR: Ernest K. NICHOLSON, Superintendent, in his official capacity; SCHOOL BOARD MEMBERS; Bennie ANDERSON, Chairman; Monroe FRIDAY, Jack ODOM; Elrita BACOTE; T.R. GREEN; James W. HICKS, in their official capacity

No. 91 – 1047


Plaintiffs – Appellees:    Mark Hartmann, et al.

Defendant – Appellant: Florence County School District Four, et., al.


Mark Hartmann is an eleven year old child with autism.  Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by significant deficiencies in communication skills, social interaction, and motor control.  Mark is not able to speak and has severed problems with fine motor coordination.  Mark’s ability to write is limited.  He types on a keyboard but can only consistently type a few words such as “is” and “at”.  Mark has had episodes of


Loud screeching and other disruptive conduct; including, hitting, pinching, kicking, biting, and removing his clothing.  The school district proposed removing Mark from the regular classroom and place him in a class structured for children with autism.  However, he would be integrated for art, music, physical education, library, and recess.  Mark would be allowed to rejoin the regular education setting as he demonstrated an improved ability to handle it.  The Hartmanns refused to approve the IEP, claiming that it failed to comply with the mainstreaming provision of the IDEA, which states that “to the maximum extent appropriate,” disabled children should be educated with children who are not handicapped. 20 U.S.C. § 1412(5)(B). The county initiated due process proceedings, 20 U.S.C. § 1415(b), and on December 14, 1994, the local hearing officer upheld the May 1994 IEP. She found that Mark’s behavior was disruptive and that despite the “enthusiastic” efforts of the county, he had obtained no academic benefit from the regular education classroom. On May 3, 1995, the state review officer affirmed the decision, adopting both the hearing officer’s findings and her legal analysis. The Hartmanns then challenged the hearing officer’s decision in federal court.

While the administrative process continued, Mark entered third grade in the regular education classroom at Ashburn. In December of that year, the Hartmanns withdrew Mark from Ashburn. Mark and his mother moved to Montgomery County, Virginia, to permit the Hartmanns to enroll Mark in public school there. Mark was placed in the regular third-grade classroom for the remainder of that year as well as the next.

The district court reversed the hearing officer’s decision. The court rejected the administrative findings and concluded that Mark could receive significant educational benefit in a regular classroom and that “the Board simply did not take enough appropriate steps to try to include Mark in a regular class.” The court made little of the testimony of Mark’s Loudoun County instructors, and instead relied heavily on its reading of Mark’s experience in Illinois and Montgomery County. While the hearing officer had addressed Mark’s conduct in detail, the court stated that “given the strong presumption for inclusion under the IDEA, disruptive behavior should not be a significant factor in determining the appropriate educational placement for a disabled child.”


Mark spent his pre-school years in various programs for disabled children. In kindergarten, he spent half his time in a self-contained program for autistic children and half in a regular education classroom at Butterfield Elementary in Lombard, Illinois. Upon entering first grade, Mark received speech and occupational therapy one-on-one, but was otherwise included in the regular classroom at Butterfield full-time with an aide to assist him.

After Mark’s first-grade year, the Hartmanns moved to Loudoun County, Virginia, where they enrolled Mark at Ashburn Elementary for the 1993-1994 school year. Based on Mark’s individualized education program (IEP) from Illinois, the school placed Mark in a regular education classroom. To facilitate Mark’s inclusion, Loudoun officials carefully selected his teacher, hired a full-time aide to assist him, and put him in a smaller class with more independent children. Mark’s teacher, Diane Johnson, read extensively about


  1. autism, and both Johnson and Mark’s aide, Suz Leitner, received training in facilitated communication, a special communication technique used with autistic children. Mark received five hours per week of speech and language therapy with a qualified specialist,   Carolyn Clement. Halfway through the year, Virginia McCullough, a special education teacher, was assigned to provide Mark with three hours of instruction a week and to advise Mark’s teacher and aide.

Mary Kearney, the Loudoun County Director of Special Education, personally worked with Mark’s IEP team, which consisted of Johnson, Leitner, Clement, and Laurie McDonald, the principal of Ashburn. Kearney provided in-service training for the Ashburn staff on autism and inclusion of disabled children in the regular classroom. Johnson, Leitner, Clement, and McDonald also attended a seminar on inclusion held by the Virginia Council for Administrators of Special Education. Mark’s IEP team also received assistance from educational consultants Jamie Ruppmann and Gail Mayfield, and Johnson conferred with additional specialists whose names were provided to her by the Hartmanns and the school. Mark’s curriculum was continually modified to ensure that it was properly adapted to his needs and abilities.

Frank Johnson, supervisor of the county’s program for autistic children, formally joined the IEP team in January, but provided assistance throughout the year in managing Mark’s behavior. Mark engaged in daily episodes of loud screeching and other disruptive conduct such as hitting, pinching, kicking, biting, and removing his clothing. These outbursts not only required Diane Johnson and Leitner to calm Mark and redirect him, but also consumed the additional time necessary to get the rest of the children back on task after the distraction.

Despite these efforts, by the end of the year Mark’s IEP team concluded that he was making no academic progress in the regular classroom. In Mark’s May 1994 IEP, the team therefore proposed to place Mark in a class specifically structured for autistic children at Leesburg Elementary. Leesburg is a regular elementary school which houses the autism class in order to facilitate interaction between the autistic children and students who are not handicapped. The Leesburg class would have included five autistic students working with a special education teacher and at least one full-time aide. Under the May IEP, Mark would have received only academic instruction and speech in the self-contained classroom, while joining a regular class for art, music, physical education, library, and recess. The Leesburg program also would have permitted Mark to increase the portion of his instruction received in a regular education setting as he demonstrated an improved ability to handle it.


To demand more than this from regular education personnel would essentially require them to become special education teachers trained in the full panoply of disabilities that their students might have. Virginia law does not require this, nor does the IDEA. First, such a requirement would fall afoul of Rowley’s admonition that the IDEA does not guarantee the ideal educational opportunity for every disabled child. Furthermore, when the IDEA was passed, Congress’ intention was not that the Act displace the primacy of


States in the field of education, but that States receive funds to assist them in extending their educational systems to the handicapped.” Rowley, 458 U.S. at 208. The IDEA “expressly incorporates State educational standards.” Schimmel v. Spillane, 819 F.2d 477, 484 (4th Cir. 1987). We can think of few steps that would do more to usurp state educational standards and policy than to have federal courts re-write state teaching certification requirements in the guise of applying the IDEA.  In sum, we conclude that Loudoun County’s efforts on behalf of Mark were sufficient to satisfy the IDEA’s mainstreaming directive.


The IDEA embodies important principles governing the relationship between local school authorities and a reviewing district court. Although section 1415(e)(2) provides district courts with authority to grant “appropriate” relief based on a preponderance of the evidence, 20 U.S.C. § 1415(e)(2), that section “is by no means an invitation to the courts to substitute their own notions of sound educational policy for those of the school authorities which they review.” Board of Education of Hendrick Hudson Central Sch. Dist. v. Rowley, 458 U.S. 176, 206 (1982).  These principles reflect the IDEA’s recognition that federal courts cannot run local schools. Local educators deserve latitude in determining the individualized education program most appropriate for a disabled child. The IDEA does not deprive these educators of the right to apply their professional judgment. Rather it establishes a “basic floor of opportunity” for every handicapped child. Rowley, 458 U.S. at 201. States must provide specialized instruction and related services “sufficient to confer some educational benefit upon the handicapped child,” id. at 200, but the Act does not require “the furnishing of every special service necessary to maximize each handicapped child’s potential,” id. at 199.


The IDEA encourages mainstreaming, but only to the extent that it does not prevent a child from receiving educational benefit. The evidence in this case demonstrates that Mark Hartmann was not making academic progress in a regular education classroom despite the provision of adequate supplementary aids and services. Loudoun County properly proposed to place Mark in a partially mainstreamed program which would have addressed the academic deficiencies of his full inclusion program while permitting him to interact with nonhandicapped students to the greatest extent possible. This professional judgment by local educators was deserving of respect. The approval of this educational approach by the local and state administrative officers likewise deserved a deference from the district court which it failed to receive. In rejecting reasonable pedagogical choices and disregarding well-supported administrative findings, the district court assumed an educational mantle which the IDEA did not confer. Accordingly, the judgment must be reversed, and the case remanded with directions to dismiss it.

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD




“Appropriate” education is one that goes beyond the normal school year. If a child will experience severe or substantial regression during the summer months in the absence of a summer program, the handicapped child may be entitled to year round services. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA) passed in 1975, this act provided support to state special education programs to provide free appropriate public education to disabled children. National precedent establishing the tests for determining the need for an extended school year for special needs children.

            For the purpose of this case we will determine if there is sufficient enough evidence of regression to justify requiring the district to provide summer services to the student.

Case One

United States Court of Appeals,

Fifth Circuit

Alamo Heights Independent School District-Plaintiff-Appellants


State Board Of Education, et al., Defendants-Apelles

790 F .d 1153


Plaintiff –Appellant: Alamo Heights Independent School District

Defendants – Apelles: State Board of Education


In the summer  1979, when Steven was seven, his mother moved into the Alamo Heights Independent School District. That school year Steven attended a special education program at Cambridge Elementary School. In the late spring of 1980, Mrs. G.

requested that the Alamo Heights Independent School District provide summer services for Steven.

For seven years prior to 1980 the Alamo Heights School District had offered a summer program to all special education students who were moderately or severely handicapped. The decision to offer the program was made on the administrative level, as a matter of district policy, and any moderate to severely handicapped child was eligible to

attend. In the summer of 1980, when Steven would have been eligible for this program, however, the School District changed its policy and offered only a half-day one-month program, without providing transportation. The decision to curtail the summer program was based on its cost and the apparent lack of interest on the part of teachers and eligible students in previous years.

No students from Steven’s multiply handicapped class took advantage of the 1980 summer program, nor did Steven. It is not clear, however, whether Mrs. G. was not told of the program or whether the lack of transportation and the hours made it impossible for Steven to attend. During that summer, Steven stayed with a baby-sitter who had no training in special education. There was testimony that Steven’s behavior deteriorated that summer and that he suffered regression in his ability to stand, point, and feed himself.

The next year Mrs. G.’s request for summer services and transportation was refused by school officials, without consultation with Steven’s Admission, Review and Dismissal (ARD) Committee or with his teacher. The only caretaker Mrs. G. could find for Steven lived a mile outside of the district boundary, and even during the school year, the School District would not provide out-of-district transportation.

Mrs. G. then employed legal counsel and appealed the denial of services to the Texas Education Agency. The administrative hearing officer issued an interim order requesting a meeting of Steven’s ARD Committee to consider the issue of summer services. The ARD Committee met and agreed only to provide some adaptive equipment for Steven and to request consultative services from the state during the summer of 1981. On August 21, 1981, the hearing officer issued a “proposal for decision” in which he found that the School District was required to provide summer services and related

transportation services during 1981, and also required the School District to make a decision regarding summer services for 1982 by March of 1982.


Without some kind of continuous, structured educational program during the evidence to conclude that Steven G. would definitely suffer severe regression after a summer without such a program, neither can it conclude that he would not and there is evidence that shows that Steven G. has suffered more than the loss of skills in isolated instances, and that he has required recoupment time of more than several weeks after summers without continuous, structured programming. A summer without continuous, structured programming would result in substantial regression of knowledge gained and skills learned, and, given the severity of Steven G.’s handicaps, this regression would be significant.


Mrs. G.’s efforts to obtain the appropriate provision of free educational services for her son were pursued within the administrative framework set up by the State of Texas pursuant to EAHCA guidelines. The success she achieved in requiring the School District to provide Steven with an appropriate individualized educational placement, including summer services, was obtained through and within the “elaborate, precisely

defined administrative and judicial enforcement system. Because we find that, whether or  denominated due process, the claims upon which Mrs. G. has prevailed are rights granted by the EAHCA, and because the EAHCA contains no provision for attorney’s fees, we agree with the district court that no attorney’s fees are to be awarded under Sec. 1988.

We also find that Mrs. G. is not entitled to attorney’s fees under the Rehabilitation Act. In Smith, the Court stated, “Of course, if a State provided services beyond those required by the [EAHCA], but discriminatorily denied those services to a handicapped child, Section 504 [of the Rehabilitation Act] would remain available as an avenue of relief.”

Mrs. G. asserts that the fact that the School District provided a summer remedial reading program, free of charge, to nonhandicapped children without providing an

analogous free summer program to handicapped children is a clear instance of discrimination on the basis of handicap in violation of Sec. 504.

We do not agree. Under the EAHCA, the School District is required to provide handicapped children with a free, appropriate education geared towards their individual needs. If a handicapped child’s IEP requires summer services under the EAHCA, he is entitled to summer services. The fact that the School District affords some nonhandicapped children remedial help during the summer does not mean that it is required to offer similar remedial summer guidance to handicapped children, irrespective of whether their individual IEP’s provide for structured summer services. The school district’s action in Steven’s case has not been shown to constitute discrimination on the basis of his handicap distinct from the protection afforded under the EAHCA. Hence, Mrs. G. is not entitled to attorney’s fees under 29 U.S.C. Sec. 794a(b), the attorney’s fees provision of the Rehabilitation Act.

Finally, the School District argues that it was denied due process by the procedures employed by the State Board of Education during the administrative stage of this action. It contends that under Helms v. McDaniel, the hearing officer’s initial proposed decision of August 24, 1981 should have been considered the final decision of the case and that the hearing officer’s later adoption of the Commissioner of Education’s decision was a direct violation of Helms. It contends that the failure of the hearing officer to adopt his initial proposed decision as the final decision of the case denied them due process. The School District does not favor us with any authority for the proposition that an adjudicative officer is prohibited by the due process clause from changing his opinion in the course of an orderly procedure. We find the district court did not err in dismissing the School District’s due process claims against the state defendants.


The district court carefully phrased its conclusion and, while it did not explicitly state that the educational program offered by the School District did not meet the “some

educational benefit” standard of Rowley, the district court showed that it was aware of that decision and its judgment is therefore tantamount to such a conclusion. Hence, we

hold that the district court applied the appropriate standard to the factual determinations supported by the record. The general injunctive relief granted by the court was

appropriate to ensure that Steven receives the summer programming to which he is entitled under the Act.

With respect to out-of-district transportation for Steven G., the district court found that transportation is included in the definition of “related service” under 20 U.S.C. Sec. 1401(a)(17) and that such transportation does not cease to be a related service simply because a parent requests transportation to a site a short distance beyond the district boundaries.


The evidence indicates that Todd was receiving benefit from the TISD special education program, and hence, the TISD special education program was an appropriate placement under IDEA. Equally important, the TISD special education program provided Todd with an opportunity to interact with nondisabled peers, and was a less restrictive environment than The Oaks. Thus, regardless of whether Todd extracted any academic benefit from the educational program at The Oaks, Todd’s parents’ unilateral decision to place him there remains their financial responsibility. For these reasons, the decision of the district court is AFFIRMED.


Professor William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Program in Educational Leadership, PVAMU, The Texas A&M University System



In order to assure that all children are given a meaningful opportunity to

benefit from public education, the education of children with disabilities is

required to be tailored to the unique needs of the handicapped child by means of an individualized education plan (IEP). As a condition of federal funding, IDEA requires states to provide all children with a “free appropriate public education,” with the statutory term “appropriate” designating education from which the schoolchild obtains some degree of benefit.

This report focuses on parents rights to place their son in a unilateral placement despite the public school program and IEP. The parents by law have the right to request reimbursement for private placement.

Case One

United States Courts of Appeals,

Fifth Circuit

TODD L., Mr. and Mrs. L., Defendant-Appellants,


Docket No. No. 92-8427.


Plaintiffs-Appellant: Todd L., Mr. and Mrs. L.,



As a condition of federal funding, IDEA requires states to provide all children with a “free appropriate public education,” with the statutory term “appropriate” designating education from which the schoolchild obtains some degree of benefit. IDEA requires that children with disabilities be educated to the maximum extent possible with nondisabled children in the least restrictive environment consistent with their needs, a concept referred to as “mainstreaming.” In order to assure that all children are given a meaningful opportunity to benefit from public education, the education of children with disabilities is required to be tailored to the unique needs of the handicapped child by means of an individualized education plan (IEP).

Complying with IDEA, Todd’s local public school district (the Teague Independent School District, “TISD”), in collaboration with Todd and his parents, developed an IEP for Todd. Consistent with IDEA’s requirement that special education services be tailored to the unique needs of the child, the IEP emphasized one-on-one instruction in specially equipped classrooms, and reduced the length of Todd’s school day from seven hours to two hours. Todd’s school day was reduced not for the convenience of school staff, but in response to Todd’s inability to tolerate a longer school day without becoming unduly frustrated and discouraged, leading to regression rather than academic progress.

The school psychologist specifically found that a shortened school day would be necessary, at least temporarily, to assure that Todd’s inability to tolerate frustration did not lead to his giving up on academics altogether and dropping out of school. Though Todd was educated separately from his nondisabled peers for part of the school day, the school arranged for Todd to have contact with nondisabled peers. The goal of Todd’s four-year IEP was to provide him with a nonthreatening environment in which he could continue to make academic progress while gradually learning to tolerate a lengthened school day and increased stress. The record indicates that the authors of Todd’s IEP fully expected that ultimately Todd would be reintegrated into “the mainstream” of regular classes at the TISD school, and would graduate.


When Todd’s parents sought reimbursement for the costs of Todd’s institutionalization, the TISD refused on the grounds that Todd had been able to benefit from the TISD program and that The Oaks placement was more restrictive than necessary to provide Todd with educational benefit. Todd’s parents appealed to a special education

hearing officer, who found that Todd’s parents should be reimbursed. The special education hearing officer found that Todd’s parents had established that Todd’s local

public school was an inappropriate placement while The Oaks was an appropriate placement. According to the hearing officer, there was no evidence that Todd had obtained any benefit from special education at the TISD School. Contending that this factual conclusion was clearly erroneous, and that the hearing officer did not take into account the relative restrictiveness of The Oaks and the TISD School’s special education program, the school district appealed the hearing officer’s decision to federal district court.

Although the district court indicated that it gave “due weight” to the decision of the hearing officer, the district court concluded, after reviewing all the evidence from the administrative proceeding and hearing additional evidence, that the TISD public school placement was appropriate, and that The Oaks placement was inappropriate. Therefore, the district court reversed the hearing officer’s decision to grant Todd’s parents reimbursement for the cost of Todd’s institutionalization at The Oaks. Todd’s parents appeal the district court’s decision. We affirm.


Having decided that the district court did not err in subjecting the hearing officer’s decision to a searching review, it remains only to decide whether the conclusions drawn by the district court were proper. We review de novo, as a mixed question of law and fact, the district court’s decision that the local school’s IEP was appropriate and that the alternative placement was inappropriate under IDEA. Christopher M. v. Corpus Christi Independent Sch. Dist., 933 F.2d 1285, 1289 (5th Cir.1991). We review the district court’s findings of “underlying fact” for clear error. Id. See also Sherri A.D., 975 F.2d at 207. Findings of “underlying fact” include findings that the schoolchild obtained

any benefit from special education services or would be threatened by a longer school day. Christopher M., 933 F.2d at 1289.  If a parent or guardian unilaterally removes a child from the local public school system, the parent or guardian may obtain reimbursement for an alternative placement only if able to demonstrate that the regular school placement was inappropriate, and that the alternative placement was appropriate. School Comm. of Burlington v. Department of Educ., 471 U.S. 359, 373-74, 105 S.Ct. 1996, 2004, 85 L.Ed.2d 385 (1985). If Todd’s IEP in the local public school district was appropriate, then there is no need to inquire further as to the appropriateness of The Oaks’ program.

Under IDEA, an “appropriate” placement is that which enables a child to obtain “some benefit” from the public education he is receiving; not necessarily maximization of his potential. See Rowley, 458 U.S. at 198-200, 102 S.Ct. at 3047. In addition to requiring that the child’s placement be appropriate in the sense of providing some benefit, IDEA mandates that to the fullest extent possible, disabled children be educated with non-disabled children in the least restrictive environment. See 20 U.S.C. § 1412(5); Rowley, 458 U.S. at 202, 102 S.Ct. at 3048; Sherri A.D., 975 F.2d at 206 (“Even in cases in which mainstreaming is not a feasible alternative, there is a statutory preference for serving disabled individuals in the setting which is least restrictive of their liberty and which is near the community in which their families live”). A presumption exists in favor of the local public school district’s plan for educating the child, provided it comports with IDEA. See Tatro v. State of Texas, 703 F.2d 823, 830 (5th Cir.1983). See generally Rowley, 458 U.S. at 207-08, 102 S.Ct. at 3051.

There is ample evidence that Todd received significant benefit from his public school placement. Todd’s teacher and school psychologist both testified that Todd made significant progress academically and behaviorally while in the TISD special education program. Not only did Todd advance in terms of grade level, he also became steadily more able to focus on particular tasks for longer periods without experiencing debilitating frustration. At the same time, the TISD special education program provided Todd with

some opportunity to interact with nondisabled peers, and the opportunity to participate in the affairs of the community in which he lived.

Todd’s one-on-one instruction at TISD was no more restrictive than necessary to assure that he would receive some academic benefit from special education at TISD. The school psychologist testified that while she would have recommended some sort of residential placement had the district not been able to provide Todd with one-on-one

instruction, she would never consider placing a child like Todd at a residential facility as restrictive as The Oaks without first exhausting the full range of less restrictive alternatives. She testified that even though Todd had serious behavior problems, she did not consider him so unruly as to require twenty-four hour supervision in a locked unit. In the school psychologist’s opinion, The Oaks was a placement of last resort.

By contrast to the unambiguous evidence that Todd benefitted from special education at the TISD school, the evidence that Todd benefitted from educational services at The Oaks is equivocal. The evidence Todd’s parents produced to support their claim that Todd benefitted academically from educational programming at The Oaks compares Todd’s performance before he received special education services at the TISD school with Todd’s performance after he was institutionalized. Hence, it is difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain whether the source of the benefit Todd obtained was provided primarily by the TISD school, or by The Oaks. It is uncontroverted that The Oaks’ focus was on behavior management, and that The Oaks devoted only the same or a little more time to Todd’s educational programming than did the TISD school.

Finally, Todd’s placement at The Oaks involved more restrictions on Todd’s liberty than any other potential placement, removed Todd from his home community, and completely precluded him from having any contact with nondisabled peers. There is exceedingly little evidence, other than the hospital’s willingness to admit Todd, that he required such a restrictive environment. Although we can assume, based on Todd’s admission to The Oaks, that a physician

ratified Todd’s parents’ decision to hospitalize their son, the great weight of the evidence indicated that he could not only cope, but thrive, in a less restrictive setting.


The evidence indicates that Todd was receiving benefit from the TISD special education program, and hence, the TISD special education program was an appropriate placement under IDEA. Equally important, the TISD special education program provided

Todd with an opportunity to interact with nondisabled peers, and was a less restrictive environment than The Oaks. Thus, regardless of whether Todd extracted any academic benefit from the educational program at The Oaks, Todd’s parents’ unilateral decision to place him there remains their financial responsibility. For these reasons, the decision of the district court is AFFIRMED.


The district court carefully phrased its conclusion and, while it did not explicitly state that the educational program offered by the School District did not meet the “some educational benefit” standard of Rowley, the district court showed that it was aware of that decision and its judgment is therefore tantamount to such a conclusion. Hence, we hold that the district court applied the appropriate standard to the factual determinations supported by the record. The general injunctive relief granted by the court was appropriate to ensure that Steven receives the summer programming to which he is entitled under the Act.

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis Inducted into the William H. Parker Leadership Academy Hall of Honor (HBCU)

Remarks by Angela Stevens McNeil

July 26th 2008

Good Morning. My name is Angela Stevens McNeil and I have the privilege of introducing the next Hall of Honor Inductee, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis. Dr. Kritsonis was chosen because of his dedication to the educational advancement of Prairie View A&M University students. He earned a Bachelor’s degree in 1969 from Central Washington University in Ellensburg, Washington.  In 1971, he earned his Master’s in Education from Seattle Pacific University.  In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa.

Dr. Kritsonis has served and blessed the field of education as a teacher, principal, superintendent of schools, director of student teaching and field experiences, invited guest professor, author, consultant, editor-in-chief, and publisher.  He has also earned tenure as a professor at the highest academic rank at two major universities.

In 2005, Dr. Kritsonis was an Invited Visiting Lecturer at the Oxford Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England.  His lecture was entitled theWays of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning.

In 2004, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis was recognized as the Central Washington University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus for the College of Education and Professional Studies.

Dr. William Kritsonis is a well respected author of more than 500 articles in professional journals and several books.  In 1983, Dr. Kritsonis founded the NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS. These publications represent a group of highly respected scholarly academic periodicals. In 2004, he established the DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal forPublishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research. The DOCTORAL FORUM is the only refereed journal in America committed to publishing doctoral students while they are enrolled in course work in their doctoral programs. Over 300 articles have been published by doctorate and master’s degree students and most are indexed in ERIC.

Currently, Dr. Kritsonis is a Professor in the PhD Program in Educational Leadership here at Prairie View A&M University.

Dr. William Kritsonis has dedicated himself to the advancement of educational leadership and to the education of students at all levels.  It is my honor to bring him to the stage at this time as a William H. Parker Leadership Academy Hall of Honor Inductee.

Why Is Pre-school Education Important for Children?

While pre-schools don’t follow the same structure of elementary schools and there are no formal rules and regulations, there is a chance to learn a lot through them by exploring and playing under the guidance of helpful and caring teachers. They are important in helping a child gain some basic knowledge and pick up information that can also be useful once he starts elementary school.

Studies show that pre-schools aid a child’s development and students who have attended these schools do not require special education classes. Some of the major benefits of pre-school education for children are listed below.

Importance of pre-school education:

Acquire social skills – The best things that two to five year old children learn through various activities at pre-school are social skills. They learn how to follow instructions and how to co-operate with other young children in different activities. They tend to work together while drawing and construct different things in building sessions. By attending pre-schools children find their true social self as they find kids of the same age there. Toddlers who might not have blossomed at home can really sparkle at pre-school and children who are shy can learn to overcome their introvert tendencies too.

Learn the basics through play – The activities at pre-school are designed in such a manner that the kid learn a lot of basics while having fun with their peers. The singing activity introduces children to letters and alphabets and the block counting introduces them to numbers. When they hear stories they get introduced to sentence formation as well as language skills. The child can also get some exposure to biology and geology through nature walks and to colors and shapes through puzzles and finger painting activities.

Encourage creativity – Children get a lot more opportunities of building their creative minds through various crafty and artistic activities designed by pre-school teachers. They often don’t show their creative self at homes for fear of getting a scolding fo the mess it might create. With no such fear at pre-schools, they are able to explore the limits of their curious and imaginative minds.

Develop motor skills – A good pre-school also arranges various activities throughout the day in which the child has to run and climb. Activities like interactive games can also improve the child’s physical development and balance. With simple scissor cutting and bead threading tasks, a child’s motor skills as well as hand-eye coordination can develop. The group activities develops their physical as well as motor skills.

Therefore, parents should select the nursery schools so that their children get a strong base from their very childhood. Children who don’t attend pre-schools often encounter difficulty in following instructions, rules and regulations. Teachers who teach in kindergarten also say that children are better prepared to learn when they have already been taught socializing skills at preschool before.

Thus, attending pre-schools helps a child adjust easily to kindergartens. There are a lot of pre-schools in Abu Dhabi that have started to accept children when they are only two and a half years old, while there are others that admit kids after they celebrate their third or fourth birthdays. The top nurseries in Abu Dhabi, UAE try to give the best possible education to children so that the children can develop into better human beings in future.

How to Advance Your Career As a Elementary School Teacher

In recent times, the career ground of elementary school education in the United States has become highly rewarding and the most favored occupation. In past few years, this career option has gained enough recognition and turned out to be one of the few career areas that offer better job prospects and salary that are complemented with solid benefits. In fact, this is one of the few professions that provide you with opportunities to handle important responsibilities like assisting children with educational and emotional development in the beginning of their academic years. These days many elementary school teachers primarily play the role of instructor for small children in several subjects. Adding to this, in some cases, two or more teachers also team up to cover a class.

Functioning as an elementary school teacher, you don’t just educates or teaches children, but perform the important task of making the basics of all the subjects, so that they never face any problem while studying difficult topics in the higher standards. The most important thing that you need to understand is the learning problems faced by the small school students and to offer teaching solutions to overcome from these problems. As a result, this can be only possible if you as an elementary school teacher receive proper training and education. We can certainly say that elementary school teaching is a physically and emotionally demanding occupation that requires a high level of energy. Though the profession has its own rewards, but it also demands skills so that you can perform your role more efficiently.

Now if you are looking forward to making a career as an elementary school teacher, you must be at least a graduate from a well recognized university in a subject which you would like to educate. At a minimum, you must include the completion of a bachelor’s degree. These days, many states of the United States require a specified number of education credits that needs to be earned over the course of study in order to teach in a public school. Though there are some states as well that look for teachers who have earned a master’s degree within a certain amount of time after starting to teach. Nevertheless, in recent times enrolling in a professional development school after bachelor’s degree is also increasingly more popular option.

Apart from all this, you even need to obtain a teaching certification. Today in many states of the United States the licensure is generally granted by the State Board of Education. Ultimately, this licensure can be granted to you by the State Board of Education, if you have passed all the educational requirements and completed a test based on proficiency in basic reading, writing and teaching skills. Though, it is also important to understand that the requirements may even vary by state.

There are many private schools also that do not look or require any certifications. In fact, many private schools are exempt from meeting state licensing standards, although they mostly favor candidates who have a bachelor’s degree in childhood education for elementary school teachers. They generally look for the candidates among recent college graduates. Besides this, many private schools associated with religious institutions desire candidates who share the values that are important to the institution. In addition to this, many private schools even conduct live teaching tests where you as an aspiring teacher will be asked to teach a class of students and based on your teaching process and the quality of teaching grades are given.

At times, you may even have to appear for an interview with the senior school management before you are selected as a teacher. Though, you may keep yourself updated about theelementary school teacher jobs by joining associations like the American Federation of Teachers.

The future prospect for elementary teachers is surely very good. In next few years many job openings are going to boom. The ratio of additional jobs is expected to grow as the demand of teaching jobs in poor and urban schools after a couple of years is also going to increase.

Medical school rankings and reviews help you choose the right institution

A successful career is an important aspect of a successful life. Hence, it should be chosen wisely. Choosing a career option is not a piece of cake. It calls for a lot of research and depends upon your area of interest. What would you like to become in future? Which profession would you like to choose? Well, along with your personal interest, the advice from experts also matters a lot during the decision making process.

Today, healthcare is a rapidly growing field. Healthcare and nursing industry will reap you innumerable benefits if you choose your career in any of the diverse fields that it provides.New jobs are being added every day, and furthermore, new certifications, degrees, and career tracks are following suit. Medical is one of the most popular career paths that most of the students are choosing in the current world. In almost all areas of medicine, you earn a handsome amount, with reputation and respect also coming along.

To become a profound medical practitioner, it is essential to get admission in a top-notch medical school. Getting admission in a reputed school is not a piece of cake either. Along with top scores, thorough research also matters a lot. It is important to analyze and know that the medical school you are getting getting into ranks amongst the best and is perfect in terms of environment, campus, grading policy, geography, curriculum, financial aids, scholarships, class size, and facilities. The long list of medical schools can confuse into making an incorrect choice. Furthermore, it is not possible for you to visit each institution and gather all the information by yourself. With the advent of internet, it is now possible to gather information and know the international medical school rankings within the comforts of home. With just a click of a mouse, it is now easy to know reviews and rankings of each medical school.

If you are looking to study abroad, the online world is a good source and, in fact, a good starting point to let you know the rankings of top medical colleges and universities. The ranking is usually based on various standard factors. The institutions scoring high in most of these factors are placed at the top whereas the colleges with low scores appear at the bottom. There are many websites that are the best source of information regarding all aspects of medical institutions. On visiting each site, you can read medical school reviews, which will help you to make the right decision. So, collect all the information about medical schools via the internet and choose a good institution that provides a rewarding career in medicine.

A Student-Centric School in India

Everyone today is worried about whether kids are learning what they need to get into college, finding good jobs, getting along in a big company, and learning new trades. The country’s whole school system seems geared toward producing future workers. It is certainly not geared toward the children in the system. In fact, the prevailing view is that if teachers focus too much on students’ pleasure they will somehow be encouraging wanton self-indulgence and dangerous hedonism.

Childhood is one of the best, most carefree stages of life, where a child learns through example and observation and curiosity. Or, at least, that is how it is supposed to be. Somehow, in today’s education system, the joy of learning, of understanding, is not something teachers worry about because the focus is on learning facts, discipline and organisation. While some recognise this and have taken steps to modulate learning in more child-friendly atmosphere, most don’t recognise the dichotomy where schools are made for children and yet, schools may work only to curb their natural enthusiasm and wonderment.
International schools in India have progressed to allow some room for independence to students and modified teaching techniques. Bangalore has become a centre for education, not only at the higher education level, but at the primary school level. While every school can call itself “international”, there are very few that provide teaching standards equivalent to the global schools they would like to match. Candor International School is one of those few schools that go the extra mile to push their students’ creative boundaries and bring a level of enjoyment that is not strictly traditional. Completely student focused, Candor International School functions according to IGCSE norms and grants its students an International Baccalaureate (IB) as they graduate. This allows students to be fully armed if they wish to pursue their higher studies in international locations. This ensures that they will be used to international levels and methods of learning.

Driving Change in Educational Organization


Driving Change in Educational Organization


Regardless of the way that change is hard to do well, it is an extremely key viewpoint to authoritative development and survival. Release record of accomplishment is one thing that is shared by the distinctive types of progress. In instructive hierarchical setting, change is required with a specific end goal to achieve superior and high caliber of training. It ought to be unmistakably comprehended that out of the a lot of organizations that execute change for achievement, just a couple of them can succeed. This is the reason with reference to why it is shown that change is hard to actualize. Instructive association over the entire world are starting to see the advantages of progress and henceforth are progressively starting to utilize another and inventive methodology that achieves little and extensive scale frameworks of progress in various schools particularly colleges (Fullan, 2001, pp.43).

This study addresses the idea of progress and its effects or impacts to instructive association settings, administration and driving change, neutralizes to change, legislative issues, and financial aspects, understanding of the flow of progress and their consequences for the vital arranging of learning establishments, and other data that is identified with driving change in instructive associations. Instructive associations are among the perspectives that are encountering a considerable measure of progress in the entire world and consequently data concerning how this change ought to be driven and oversaw is of incredible significance. There are diverse ways that are utilized as a part of realizing change in instructive frameworks. Numerous analysts and researchers have expressed that achieve change is one thing and driving and dealing with that change is another viewpoint. Conventional instructive settings should be changed keeping in mind the end goal to consolidate the part of cutting edge innovation in training (Harris, 2007, pp.316).

Examination of Change, Behavior, Leadership Theories, and Principles

Keeping in mind the end goal to pick up a reasonable comprehension of instructive change procedure and its related effects on the acts of training, it is exceptionally basic to analyze change, authority hypotheses, conduct, and standards. For this situation, change is realized by pioneers and great pioneers for the most part counsel the workers before executing a change as showed by the participatory administration speculations (Silverman, 2005, pp.23). As indicated by the behavioral hypothesis of initiative, awesome pioneers are generally made yet not conceived. For this situation, a pioneer figures out how to be a pioneer through rehearsing. Standards of a decent pioneer incorporate; tuning in, confiding in oneself, enabling the subordinates, figuring out how to be flexible, conveying successfully, and figuring out how to take obligations.

The Concept of Change

Keeping in mind the end goal to plainly comprehend the idea of progress, it is of extraordinary significance to characterize this change. Change can be characterized contrastingly as indicated by various circumstances. As demonstrated by Werkman (2009, pp.670), change is so widely inclusive in individuals’ lives to the degree that it just about annihilations investigation and depiction. By and large, change is the part of making something looks new or changing something from the old structure to another one (Harris, 2007, pp.317).

Change happens after some time and henceforth it is unavoidable. This suggests there is not a period when people will stay away from change; this is a perspective that comes as time passes by. Case in point, the expanded headway of innovation has achieved a ton of changes in all parts of life over a brief timeframe. Change is not generally positive as in some ways it is negative or both. This implies change may come to modify what is as of now there either adversely or emphatically or even both. Looks into, as demonstrated by Silverman (2005, pp.23), change is unavoidable and consequently it is the part of the influenced gatherings to ensure that this change is very much driven and oversaw (Leithwood et al, 1999). Change can be realized by a person to the general public and it can exude from the general public to a person. This shows a man can change the whole society while then again a general public can change the practices and contemplations of a person. It ought to be noticed that for a change to happen or to happen, there must be a cause and impacts. In instructive settings, innovation has created a considerable measure of changes which have achieved change in execution of both understudies and instructors (Paton and McCalman, 2000).

Up to this point, instructive administration structures and administration have been significantly bureaucratic especially in their method of operation which depended on incorporated and top-down control. This demonstrates the administration and initiative of instruction were from areas to schools to offices to educators to understudies (Dubrin, 2004, pp.87). Authoritative speculations and practices that have been produced and utilized show that compelling instructive associations bear the cost of altering and transforming the vertical chains of summons and more prominent degrees of self administration and additionally parallel joint efforts that are described by bureaucratic school administration (Jacobson et al, 2005, pp.617). This is a decent illustration that change happens after some time and it is inescapable.

The idea of progress does not just happen in the initiative and administration of instructive associations additionally to the execution of understudies and educators. In this regard, the nature of instruction is changing where understudies as a result of enhanced and propelled advancements are progressively performing exceptionally well at schools. It has turned out to be simple for guides to instruct their understudies particularly with the new web innovation. Authoritative change, as expressed by Fullan (2001, pp.43), is the way toward moving from the present or current operational stage into the following and progressed useful stage. This procedure is exceptionally troublesome as there are hindrances of progress. This shows there are a few perspectives that don’t permit change to happen. In instructive authoritative settings, there are a few boundaries that block change from occurring. These boundaries incorporate; wasteful initiative and authority techniques, insufficient correspondence with gatherings required in change usage, misty procedures and methodology concerning particular and general objectives, absence of association of all gatherings that are concerned or included in change administration, resistance from representatives, and disgraceful or inadequate administration of assets (Easterby-Smith et al, 2003, pp.23).

Effect of idea of progress on instructive association setting

The above portrayed ideas of progress have awesome effect on instructive setting in the present or current training operational frameworks. It has been shown that change is unavoidable and happens after some time. In this regard, the customary administration of instructive association that was significantly in light of organization has changed in the late times and schools are given a considerable measure of independence to lead themselves (Davies, 2002, pp.43). Taking a case in the part of subsidizing instruction, unmistakably not just, for instance, in the United States of America where the state had general part of financing training yet in the entire world. This has changed after some time in view of various political, social and monetary components. On this premise, state governments in numerous nations of the world contribute just a half of the instructive financing while the rest is contributed by different sources (Dessler, 2001, pp.65).

There has been a general pattern towards declined duty where schools are currently permitted more prominent degree for self administration and the strengthening of educators permitting them to assume proficient liability for the discovering that goes on their classes. It is of significance to note that groups that are served by schools are permitted to accept more extensive open doors in these schools keeping in mind the end goal to wind up more required in school administration (Chrusciel, 2008, pp.156). This is a change that has happened over a timeframe and has its circumstances and end results.

Fundamentally, when group individuals are permitted more prominent open doors and included in administration, there are the ones who are much mindful of the circumstances of the understudies in these region schools and thus they coordinate educators on which understudy requires much monetary and social bolster (Fullan, 2007, pp.56). These adjustments in the association of schools have now and again been broad and fluctuated from frameworks commanded norms that license coaches to use their expert judgment in deciding the specific approach that ought to be the best for understudies in meeting the prerequisites of those gauges, to the spread of contract schools which allow a ton of self administration at school levels. The idea of progress that describes it as giving positive and negative results is plot by these progressions that have been executed in instructive associations (Bush and Middlewood, 2005, pp.28). For this situation, results have been disillusioning particularly where there is absence of administration and authority standards at school level.

A great deal of changes have happened in instructive associations settings in the most recent two decades and the years ahead will realize significantly more changes. A large portion of these progressions have originated from improvements in the outer environment where instructive associations need to flourish and get by in. Now and again changes happen abruptly yet encounter has demonstrated that is an extremely uncommon case henceforth suggesting that individuals overlook indications of progress or misconstrue them. Change is accepted to be realized by a person to society or society to people and in this manner in instructive foundations great and very much experienced chiefs are required who can execute constructive changes (Spiro, 2010, pp.27). Taking a case in Iran, the pastor of instruction has attempted a great deal in attempting to lessen the high p

Using The Concept Of “machine” To Teach Algebraic Concepts To Elementary School Students

The ideas presented in this article came about as a response to a perfectly awful third grade text book lesson which my wife was forced to present when she was student teaching. The lesson was intended (I suppose) as an introduction to algebraic concepts.

Without any motivation or other rationale, the text introduced a problem:

If 3 × X = 12 what is X?

This was followed by a description of the standard algebraic procedure for solving the problem:

  • Divide both sides of the equation by three;
  • “Cancel” the “3”s on the left hand side;
  • Divide 12 by 3;
  • Conclude that X = 4.

This procedure was described by a sequence of diagrams, each showing the next step in the transformation. The authors of the text were clearly under no illusion that a typical or even advanced third grader would understand the meaning and justification behind an algebraic derivation. The level of abstraction required to understand the concept of variable, the meaning of an equation, the idea that equations are assertions which can be transformed to logically equivalent assertions and the strategy for deriving a solution is light years beyond anything a normal third grade student has encountered or could possibly understand. The goal was simply to teach the students a mechanical procedure in the way one might program a computer.

In attempting to recast this lesson in a form that might be meaningful and even valuable to third grade students the challenge is how to make the concepts involved concrete. When a child thinks of a (whole) number she can imagine a basket of apples or a stack of pennies. When a child thinks of addition the child can think combining baskets of apples or stacks of pennies. But what interpretation can a young child give to an equation or a variable?

We start by considering how we might visualize a variable and an equation involving avariable in terms of some kind of more or less concrete object that would make sense to an eight year old. A variable is a kind of object, which can be assigned different values. An equation involving a variable is a statement which depending on the value we assign to thevariable may be either true or false. We may thus think of an equation as a kind of question answering machine. This machine accepts a number, which is to be assigned as the “value” of the variable, and the machine answers the question: “Is the equation true when this value is assigned to the variable?” We can picture such a machine operating as in the following diagrams.

The machine has a part we have labeled the input where values are placed and a part called the output where answers are produced. We will call machines that produce an output when presented with an input, Input/Output Machines. When presented with an input value, the machine illustrated above, which we have labeled “3 × X = 12?” substitutes that value for thevariable X in the equation 3 × X = 12, evaluates whether the resulting equation is true or false, and outputs the result. Thus when we enter the input “3,” the machine substitutes “3” for “X” in the equation “3 × X = 12,” resulting in the equation “3 × 3 = 12” which, when we substitute the value of 3 × 3 for “3 × 3,” gives the equation “9 = 12” which evaluates to “False” which is then output. Using this machine, we can restate the original problem as: “Find an input for the “3 × X = 12?” machine which causes this machine to output True.

While this machine may help students to visualize the meaning of an equation as a machine that outputs True or False, it seems questionable whether young students would understand the manipulations involved in substituting a value for a variable or substituting values for expressions as when we substitute “9” for “3 × 3.” Further it seems likely that the interpretation of an equation not as an assertion but as a predicate, i.e. an expression that may be “true” or “false” would be confusing to students. We can simplify the problem in two ways. First we can get rid of the equation by considering the following Input/Output machine.

Here we’ve replaced the equation, “3 × X = 12?,” by the expression “3 × X”. Like the equation machine, when presented with a value as input, this machine substitutes the value for thevariable and evaluates the expression and outputs the value. The difference is that in this case the value of the expression is a number rather than “true” or “false.” For example, when presented with input “3”, this machine produces the value “9”. In terms of this machine we can restate our problem as “Find an input value which causes the ‘3 × X’ machine to output 12.”

While we have eliminated the need to interpret an equation as a predicate, it still requires the student to make sense out of the concept of a variable and the process of substituting into a symbolic expression and simplifying. So our final step in the reduction of the problem is to eliminate the use of the variable. After all, what does the “3 × X” machine do? It takes whatever input you present to it and multiplies by 3. We can describe this without using avariable. We simply call this the “Times 3” machine (or if you prefer the “Times by 3” or perhaps the “tripling” machine.)

Now our problem can be stated entirely in terms of the Times 3 machine: find a number which when input to the Times 3 machine produces output 12.

No doubt some would argue that in this formulation we have “watered down” the lessonprecisely in that we have eliminated the use of a variable, the notion of an equation as a predicate, and the symbolic manipulation of expressions. Our counter to this has two elements. The first is that even if a typical third grader can be programmed to carry out these manipulations their meaning, justification, and value are totally beyond his capabilities. Put differently, if a student can make sense of variables, equations as predicates, and symbolic manipulation then she is actually ready to learn algebra “for real” and as far as we know no one is seriously proposing algebra as a standard for the third grade curriculum. Our second point is that, as we hope to make clear in the following discussion, we have replaced notions that are beyond the ken of a third grader with concepts and principles the student can understand and which are ultimately far more fundamental and important to the student’s mathematical development.

These concepts include that of a mathematical function and relations and operations on functions as represented here by an “input/output machine.” The significance of these concepts cannot be overstated and given their importance, time spent developing the student’s intuition about them is time well spent. For this purpose we need not be restricted to numeric or even mathematical machines.

We have experience with many examples of objects or systems that behave like input/output machines. A vending machine provides a good example. The input to the machine is money and the output is candy or whatever products the vending machine is vending. Real vending machines are a little more complicated than this of course because the input is usually the money plus an item selection, which we may make by pressing a button or pulling a knob. We could picture such a machine this way.

There is no problem to extending the notion of input/output machine to allow multiple inputs. There is also no problem allowing input/output machines to have more than one output. For example, we might have an additional output for change.

A factory is another example of a kind of input/output machine. The inputs are the raw materials and the outputs are the finished goods. The factory below takes cocoa and sugar as inputs and outputs chocolate bars.

Of course, an input/output machine needn’t be made of brick or metal. A person baking cupcakes can be thought of as an input/output machine. The inputs are the ingredients (flour and so on) and the output is a cupcake. A leaf can be thought of as an input/output machine that takes sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide and outputs sugar and oxygen. An animal can be thought of as an input/output machine that takes oxygen and sugar as input and outputs water and carbon dioxide. You can even think of yourself putting on your shoes and socks as an input/output machine. The input is you in bare feet, a pair of socks and a pair of shoes and the output is you with your socks and shoes on.

The really interesting and important thing about input/output machines is that sometimes you can take two or more input/output machines and connect them together to make a new kind of input/output machine. As an example, suppose I sell machines and I’ve got two kinds of machines. One is a cupcake-making machine that makes cupcakes from mix. The other is a chocolate frosting machine that takes whatever you give it, (dogs, cats, kids, bats, balls, cookies, fruit, whatever!) and puts chocolate frosting on it.

One day I get a call from someone who wants a special machine that makes chocolate frosted cupcakes. I say, “Well we have a machine that makes cupcakes and we have a machine that puts chocolate frosting on things but I don’t have a machine that makes a chocolate frosted cupcake. Maybe the chief machine maker (the CMM) can figure out a way to make one?” The CMM says, “No problem, we’ll take a cupcake maker and a chocolate froster and connect the output of the cupcake maker to the input of the chocolate froster and we’ll put the whole thing in a box and call it the Chocolate Frosted Cupcake Maker.”

So now I’m selling three machines: my cupcake maker, my chocolate froster, and my chocolate frosted cupcake maker. After a while I add a “Cherry Topping” machine to my product line. The cherry topper takes whatever you put in and puts a cherry on top.

Things are going along well and then one day I get a call from a customer who wants a machine that will make a chocolate frosted cupcake with a cherry on top. I don’t make one so I go to my chief machine designer. He says, “No problem” and designs a machine consisting of a chocolate frosted cupcake-making machine connected to a cherry-topping machine with a box around the whole thing. So the contraption looks like this.

The operation of connecting two input/output machines is also called composition, as in forming a “composite” or “compound”. As any mathematician will agree, composition is the most fundamental operation in mathematics. Composition is what allows us to build arbitrarily complex assemblies, concepts, and theories from simple components. It is also the basis of logical deduction: if A can be derived from B and C can be derived from B then C can be derived from A. Not surprisingly, the most fundamental principle of mathematics concerns composition. We can describe this principle using a dishwasher.

As illustrated below, our dishwasher is built out of three component machines: a washer, a rinser, and a dryer.

The dishwasher is a machine that takes dirty plates as input and produces clean dry plates as output. Looking inside the dishwasher we see that the dirty plate first enters a washer which produces a clean but soapy plate as output. The soapy dish then enters the “rinser” which produces the clean but wet plate as output and the wet plate is then put through the dryer that produces the final output: a clean dry plate.

There are a number of different ways of organizing the components of the dishwasher. One way is just to view them as three separate elements of the dishwasher. Another, illustrated below, is to associate the Rinser with the Washer and view the pair as forming a Washer-Rinser machine which is then connected to a dryer.

Another way of viewing the components is to associate the Rinser with the Dryer to form a Rinser-Dryer machine and connect the Washer to the Rinser-Dryer.

Now we ask the question: does the way we view the organization of the components:

  • A washer connected to a rinser connected to a dryer or
  • A washer-rinser connected to a dryer or
  • A washer connected to a rinser-dryer

make any difference to the behavior of the dishwasher? To answer this question, consider the behavior of the dishwasher from the point of view of the plate. No matter how we view the organization of the components, all the plate “sees” is that it first gets washed by the washer and then gets rinsed by the rinser and then get dried by the drier. So the results are the same. This is the most fundamental principle of mathematics. It is sometimes called the associative law of composition. It says that no matter how we associate the components in a composition of input/output machines, for example associating the rinser with the washer vs. associating the rinser with the dryer, the behavior of the composite machine is the same.

The associative principle might lead us to ask whether the order in which machines appear in a composition matters. The answer is a definite yes! Consider a composite made up of two clothing machines: One accepts a person as input and puts on underwear and the second takes a person and puts on outerwear. If we connect the machines in one order we get a machine that properly dresses a person with underwear underneath and outerwear outside. If we connect the machines in the opposite order then we get machine that puts our underwear over our outerwear. These machines are definitely not equivalent. So in general, when connecting machines the order matters!

The crucial concept for solving problems like the one in our lesson, is the concept of inversion which we will represent by an “Un-machine.” Let’s consider an example.
Billy and Sally like to send love notes to one another in class. Since they don’t want other people to read them, they use a secret code. The way the code works is that each letter in the message is replaced by the letter that comes after it in the alphabet. So, “A” is replaced by “B”, “B” is replaced by “C”, and so on. Of course, “Z” have a following letter so we replace it with “A.” To decode the message we do just the opposite: replace “B” with “A”, “C” with “B”, …, “Z” with “Y”, and finally “A” with “Z”. We can picture this process in terms of an “alphabet circle” as illustrated below. The coding process substitutes the next letter in the clockwise direction and the decoding process substitutes the next letter in the counter clockwise direction..

When Billy sends the message, he codes it using the coding method, and when Sally receives it, she decodes it using the decoding method. We can visualize this in terms of input/output machines as in the following diagram.

So, what is done by the coding machine is undone by the decoding machine, so if I feed the output of the Coding machine into the decoding machine I get my input back. Put another way, if I connect the coding machine to the decoding machine I get a machine that outputs exactly what you put into it. For example we put “I love you” in and we got “I love you” out. A machine whose output is always identical to the input in is called an Identity machine. A telephone provides another example of an identity machine.

When you speak into the phone, a part of the phone called the microphone takes the sound as input and produces an electrical signal as output. The electrical signals are then sent to the phone of the person you are talking to where another machine called a speaker takes the electrical signal as input and produces the same sound for the other person. Again we have an example of a machine, in this case the speaker, which undoes what another machine, the microphone, does so that when the two are connected we get an identity machine for sounds. We will call a machine which undoes what another machine does an unmachine for the first machine. Thus the decoder is an unmachine for the coder and the speaker is an unmachine for the microphone.

If we have an unmachine for a machine then we can answer questions of the form: “What was the input that produced this output?” by feeding the output into the unmachine. Consider the “Add 2” machine. You put a number in and it outputs the number + 2. So if you input 5, it will output 7, and if you input 12 it will output 14. Suppose the output is 23 and we want to find the input? We can solve this problem if we can find an Un-Add 2 machine. How do we undo adding 2? Let’s look at some examples where we know the input.

So when we input 3 to Un-Add 2 we get 1 and when we input 4 we get 2 and when we input 11 we get 9. After we look at enough examples or perhaps we see immediately because our teacher explained subtraction that way, we realize the way you undo adding 2 is to subtract 2. So the Un-Add 2 machine is the Subtract 2 machine and feeding 23 into the subtract 2 machine gives us the answer 21. After a few more problems we realize that the way you undo adding any number is by subtracting that number. In mathematical terms addition of a number and subtraction of that number are inverse operations. In the same way we can discover that division by a number is the unmachine for multiplication by the number and thus we can solve problems like the one we started with.

To make things more interesting let’s combine multiplication and addition. Suppose the result of multiplying some number by 6 and then adding 14 is 56. What is the number?

So our problem is how to undo “Times by 6 and then adding 14”. After computing the value of times by 6 and then adding 14 for some different input we realize that a times by 6 and add 14 machine can be built by connecting a “Times 6” to an “Add 14” machine.

Now we know that “Divide by 6” undoes “Times 6” and “Subtract 14” undoes “Add 14”. Is there some way we can use these unmachines to build an unmachine for the composite?
Let’s consider a more familiar example: a two stage “dressing machine.” As illustrated in the first diagram below, the first component puts on my underwear and the second component puts on my pants and shirt. The second diagram shows the Un-dressing machine. It has two components: one that undoes putting pants and shirt and the other undoes putting on underwear. But notice that the order of the unmachines is the reverse of the order of the machines. If the last thing you did getting dressed was to put on your pants and shirt then the first thing you do in getting undressed is to take off your pants and shirt.

This is a general principle that works for all input/output machines, arithmetical or otherwise. If un-A is an unmachine for A and un-B is an un-machine for B then un-B connected to un-A is the unmachine for A connected to B. This is illustrated in the diagram below. An input “x” enters the A-B machine where it is first passed through A which generates an output “a” and then “a” is passed through B to produce an output “b.” If we then feed “b” into Un-B-Un-A, “b” is first passed through Un-B which must give us “a” back, and then “a” is passed through Un-A which must give us “x” back

Thus to undo Times 6 and then Add 14 we first subtract 14, to undo adding 14, and then divide by 6 to undo multiplying by 6. Feeding 56 to this unmachine we have

Indeed, 7 × 6 + 14 = 42 + 14 = 56.

In this article we have barely scratched the surface of what can be explained at an elementary level using concepts based on the notion of machine. In addition to using these concepts to prepare students for more advanced areas like algebra they can be used to provide a much deeper understanding of the meaning and use of numbers and operations on numbers. We will explore these ideas in a future article.

Strategies To Help Reduce Elementary School Classroom Noise

Children can be noisy. While noise may simply be a part of working with children, a noisy classroom environment can be disruptive. Excess noise can also negatively impact the learning environment For these reasons; teachers should take steps to reduce the amount of student noise especially in elementary classrooms. Here are some classroom management techniques that can help to reduce the level of student noise in an elementary schoolclassroom.

One of the best ways to reduce noise in your classroom is to set a positive example for your students. If you as a teacher are loud or shout often in your classroom, you are showing your students by example that noise is acceptable. If you doubt that this is so, try speaking to your students in a calm and quiet voice. You will surely notice a difference in the noise levels in your classroom.

Another way to reduce the noise level in your classroom is to have a “quiet” signal. This signal can be used to quiet down students when necessary instead of shouting at the children to be quiet. Your signal may be holding a book above your head or making a sign with your hand. When your students observe the sign, they should sit down and be quiet. You can reward students who are quick to respond to the signal which will help to reinforce the importance of the concept.

Some classroom noise can be attributed to noisy classroom furniture. Chairs that squeak or wobble or loud desk hinges can not only create noise, but these things can be very distracting for some students. A good way to reduce chair noise is to cut an X in a tennis ball and put the ball over the bottom of the desk chair leg. You can also cover the desk legs too if you move your classroom furniture frequently during lessons.

Noise levels can also become loud when your students are traveling from the classroom to other areas of the building. In order to keep noise levels low during these times, you can keep your students busy by asking them to walk on one of the lines in the floor tiles with their hands down straight at their sides. Your students will be busy concentrating on walking on the line and will not be thinking about chatting with friends.

Another time when noise levels can become unacceptable is after students finish their seat work. Some students will finish early and other students may still be finishing up their work. Students who have finished early may be tempted to talk during these times. One way to reduce noise levels during these times is to have a quiet time activity options available. Perhaps students can read a book brought from home or they can listen quietly to their iPods. Other students may want to color from coloring pages.

Of course, it does take some time and effort to change student behavior. Students who have been used to a loud classroom may need verbal reminders as well as positive reinforcement. It may require diligence to enforce classroom quiet rules. Over time, you will notice a big difference in the noise levels that exist in your classroom.

Reduction in noise levels will mean that students are better able to concentrate on their school work. Lower noise levels also can reduce stress levels and create a positive atmosphere which can benefit for teachers and students.

Quality Public Education

In 2004 Forbes magazine ranked Raleigh, North Carolina’s Wake County Public School System ( WCPSS ), third in the nation for “Best Education in the Biggest Cities“. It’s no wonder, as Greater Raleigh is able to provide superior education opportunities in both public and private settings. WCPSS is a national leader on the education front. The school system boasts a solid high school graduation rate, great access to educational resources, and affordability in housing. All these factors, combined with it’s amazing programming make for an undeniably strong school system.

If you are moving to the Greater Raleigh area and want to know about specific WCPSS programming, read on:

K-12: The Formative Years

Committed to excellence, The Board of Education has adopted an ambitious goal. They aim to have 95 percent of WCPSS students in grades three through 12, at or above grade level by the end of this year! Such ambitious goals are indicative of a forward thinking and committed board, who are dedicated to providing the best education and ensuring that positive growth continues.

Parents in this area have a wide variety of educational options. There are many traditional public schools and also numerous private and special-needs schools. WCPSS offers over 20 programs in the district with 51 magnet schools. The award winning magnet school program provides creative approaches for teachers to reach students and to meet different student’s individual learning styles and needs. Magnet schools in the area, have been especially recognized with awards such as the United States Magnet School of Excellence of award and the Magnet School of Distinction award.

Recently the district received a portion of a 2.3 million dollar grant to open a health and life science themed high school aimed at developing students for both higher education and jobs in biotechnology and health care. Students at these schools will have the opportunity to participate in internship programs and will have access to community college and university level courses. There’s other grant funding in place which comes from the New Schools Project, an 11 million dollar grant that will create more than 100 new and redesigned high schools across the state.
Post- Secondary: Superior Education at Your Doorstep!

North Carolina State University, as one of the nation’s top research universities, is a great example of one the best post secondary options in Raleigh. Home to BTEC, The Golden LEAF Biomanfacturing Training and Education Center, this University is committed to providing a highly trained, industry-focused workforce. Dedicated to pursue “innovation in action”, NCSU partner’s with business’s, industry and government with a focus to collectively create innovative products and research.

The region’s community colleges also offer solid programs for those wishing to pursue technical, or specialized training in particular sectors of the workforce.

North Carolina community college is focused on biotechnology training to provide a highly trained workforce for the estimated 125,000 residents of NC who will be employed in this sector by 2025.

Wake Technical Community College is a leader in biological and chemical technology programs. They also offer North Carolina’s only community college lab facility for industrial pharmaceutical technology. As a state leader providing over 20% of all industry training offered by community colleges in the state, Wake Tech serves as a catalyst for economic growth and development. This exceptional community college assists thousands of businesses with its superior Small Business Center and New and Expanding Industry Program.

It is easy to see why Raleigh, North Carolina boasts one of America’s most educated workforces. If education is important to you and your family, consider Raleigh, North Carolina as a smart option for a solid future.

The Pros And Cons Of Becoming An Elementary School Teacher

Following a vocation as a primary school teacher will give you a vital role in the development of our children’s thinking during imperative, earlier years. At this point, students are easily impressed and able absorb superb amounts of info. The very future of many small kids lies lies with the earliest teachers they will ever have. Creativity and the ability to relate to first education kids is vital for these teachers to be effective in the classroom. First education teachers indoctrinate, coach, and entertain small children all to creatively condition important essential life skills.

An elementary school teacher will generally keep a class of students throughout the day. While the students may change classes for art, choir, p.e. Or other supplemental classes, they’ll have one primary teacher that may teach multiple subjects such as English, science, maths, history and more . The elementary education teacher general develops a robust relation ship with his / her class through a year of teaching the same students daily.

Today, nearly every kind of teacher will need to have at least basic PC talents and be well placed to teach students the proper way to run word processors, spread sheets, and other standard programs. This is an ability that during the past wasn’t available but will be part of any post secondary schooling for the aspiring teacher. PC laboratories are exceedingly commonplace in both non-public and larger public schools. This delivers superb opportunity for delightful, interesting, hands on communication between the teacher and the students.

For special education, junior school, teachers will be specially given training to work with these kids. The issues are sometimes intense, but the rewards great when working with special education scholars. The degree to which a student needs changed assignments is according to the level and stage of development every individual student is in. This makes it more complicated and challenging for the special education teacher to focus on and properly teach a single class of children at widely varyingstages of development. The number of student a teacher will be working with will change between faculties, but in general, teachers in private colleges will enjoy smaller class sizes and more customized attention for each student.

Training required for elementary school instructors will be geared particularly toward a teaching career. For public education, sometimes school districts require a BSc or higher and courses specifically required for teaching junior school in the district. In private faculties licensure isn’t usually needed, but it is needed for public education in all fifty states. Required licensing is issued by state boards of education and will be based on the nation’s needs as well as individual district school board policies. Numerous states license for elementary education, others for precise grade ranges.

Top 12 Pioneers in Education

You don’t need to venture into the Old West or shutte into space to be a pioneer.  These Top 12 pioneers in education have explored much rougher terrain to shape modern learning.

Horace Mann (1796-1859) Pioneer of American Public School Education
Horace Mann grew up in a time when education was not easily obtained for those that lived in the poor rural areas of America.  Though his own early education was limited, he attended Browns University, studied law, and later enjoyed a highly successful political career.  It was during his time serving as a representative and senator in the legislature of Massachusetts and lastly Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education that he used his influence to advance change in the American educational system.  We can thank Horace Mann for teacher training colleges, free libraries, and free public education to all children through taxation.

Freidrich Froebel (1782-1852) Pioneer of Early Childhood Education
Freidrich Froebel was a German educator whose philosophy of education influenced such people as Horace Mann and Maria Montessori.  Based on the belief that a young child possessed innate qualities that would unfold gradually within a natural setting, he established kindergartens where free expression, creativity, social interaction, motor activity and learning by doing were the focus.  Many of these same tenets can be found in our contemporary early childhood programs.

Charlotte Mason (1842-1923) Pioneer of Home Education
A citizen of Britain, Charlotte Mason’s dream was that all children, no matter what social class, should have the opportunity to obtain a liberal arts education.   She was dedicated to improving the way in which children were educated.  Seeing the importance of educating parents in areas of discipline and the training of children, she began the Parents’ Education Union.  It was her belief that children learn best through “living books” rather than drytextbooks and through real experiences.  Her methods included an emphasis on the enjoyment of the arts and the study of great artists and musicians.  Many of her educational practices were well suited to home education and her methods have become the foundation of many homeschooling families.

Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Pioneer of How Children Learn
Anyone who has taken a child psychology class will have studied the developmental and learning theories of Jean Piaget, the Swedish psychologist. Fascinated with how children reasoned, he began researching and writing books on the subject of child psychology.  When he later married and fathered three children, he was supplied with enough data to write three more books!  His research and subsequent theories have become the basis and foundation of our understanding of normal child development.

Margaret Bancroft (1854-1912) Pioneer of Special Education
Bancroft’s intelligence, imagination, and dedication to her students set her apart as an extraordinary educator.  At the age of 25, she embarked on a courageous and lonely endeavor by opening the first private boarding school in Haddonfield, New Jersey, for children with developmental delays.  She believed that disabled children needed special schools, adapted material, and well trained teachers rather than to be sent to institutions.  Bancroft’s students responded to her love and patience and individually-tailored instruction.  Under her influence, the medical profession began to awaken to their responsibility to help correct defects and disabilities in children.  Admirers of her skill came to train and later became leaders in the field of special education.

Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) Pioneer of Education for African-Americans
Born into slavery and later freed, Washington knew first hand the difference an education can make in a person’s life.  As a young man, Washington was appointed to head the Tuskegee Institute now called Tuskegee University, which was originally a teacher’s training college for African-Americans.  He was leader of the college from its infancy to the time of his death.  He became a dominant and influential figure among politicians and the general public and did much to pave the way for later civil rights and desegregation of public education.  It was his belief that education was the African-American community’s best chance for social equality and a better future.

John Dewey (1859-1952) Pioneer of Progressive Education
It was while he was a professor of philosophy and the head of the Chicago University’s teacher college, that Dewey exerted his greatest influence in education and promoted many educational reforms through his experimental schools.  It was his view that children should be encouraged to develop “free personalities” and that they should be taught how to think and to make judgments rather than to simply have their heads filled with knowledge.  He also believed that schools were places where children should learn to live cooperatively. A member of the first teacher’s union, he was concerned for teacher’s rights and their academic freedom.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952) Pioneer of Individualized Education
Montessori methods remain the popular choice for many parents who seek an alternative education for their children, especially for the early childhood through the primary years. Before she took an interest in education, Montessori was the first woman in Italy to obtain the training to become a doctor.  She was assigned the post of medical care to the patients of a mental institution and it was there that she encountered “backward” children igniting her passion for education.  Beginning with a daycare facility in one of the poorest neighborhoods in Rome, Montessori put her theories into practice. Her methods were influenced by her previous training in medicine, education, and anthropology.   The results were extraordinary and soon drew much attention from many parts of the world, including America.  The rest, as they say, is history.

John Holt (1923-1985) Pioneer and Advocate for Home Education
Talk about going full circle.  Whereas Horace Mann fought for the free public education of all children, Holt raised awareness of the need for reform in America’s public schools.  As an educator, he became convinced that the present system stifled the learning of most children mainly because of fear.  Disillusioned by the inability to bring reform and improvement to public schools, Holt left teaching and devoted his time to the promotion of his ideas.   He believed that children learn best when allowed to follow their own interests rather than having learning imposed upon them. His exposure to proponents of home education lead him to later conclude that the best place to set up a natural environment for learning was within a child’s home.  His books had a profound impact on the growth of the home schooling sector.

Marie Clay (1926-2007) Pioneer of Balanced Literacy Model and Reading Recovery
Born in Wellington, New Zealand, Marie Clay became an international leader in the study of children’s acquisition of literacy.  Her methods of teaching reading and written language have swept through the United States and other English speaking nations since their inception three decades ago.  The reading recovery component was developed as a means of lifting the low achieving first grader to a place alongside the average learner.  The structure of the program calls for close observation of the student by the teacher to design lessons that constantly build on what a child already knows and taking them to the next level.  Children are surrounded by a language rich environment and encouraged to choose reading books that align with their personal interests.

Jerome Bruner (1915-)  Pioneer of Discovery Learning Theory
To combat the behaviorist approach to education, Bruner developed cognitive psychology and promoted a constructivist approach.  His discovery learning theory is based on the assumption that children learn and remember better what they discover for themselves and that they are better able to remember new information if they connect it to something that they already know. His research and subsequent theories on child development closely aligns with the work of Jean Piaget.

Howard Gardner (1943-)  Pioneer of Multiple Intelligences Theory
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences has redefined educators’ views of how students learn and should be assessed. Historically, intelligence has been measured through the ability to problem solve and to demonstrate cognitive ability through various controlled verbal and performance type tasks.   Gardner’s theory broadens the field of how individuals display their intelligence by including linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, special, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligences.  Through his influence there has been a greater emphasis placed on performance testing and educators have become more conscious of the need for diversification of instructional strategies to match the learning styles and strengths of students.

How To Get Information Of The Best Foreign Medical Schools

Are you preparing for admission in a reputed foreign medical school? You must know that it is not as easy as it seems. You will need to put a lot of efforts to get good grades, which will take you there. Apart from this, you will also need all the information related to foreign medical schools, something you can find easily on various online websites. There are a lot of online portals that bring together all kinds of information related to admission in a good foreign medical school.

These websites might help you in choosing the right path. If you are from America, then also you can find the right information about the best foreign medical schools for Americans online. The Internet is a great source to find out the most useful information about anything. And when you have decided to study medicine, then also it has a lot of details like requirements of a medical school, eligibility criteria, fees, everything. So, if you need suchinformation about top foreign medical schools in a foreign land, you can easily find all of it online. Therefore, it is all easy now. You will know everything beforehand about the school you are planning to join. You can also find an online website with a great platform that allows you to exchange important information related to medical schools.

Some of the great features of these websites are as follows: Real-time Chat Rooms Discussion Forums Free Download Library Medical Schools Info Pages Links Resources Online Calendar Events Residency Program Reviews USMLE Score Estimator Medical School Surveys International Student Insurance Free USMLE Question Banks Medical School Bookstores Owing to these great features, these websites have proven to be very useful for aspirants. Value MD is one of the most popular and successful websites in this domain.

You can find everything related to top medical schools on this website. They have got a good reputation in the market for providing help to candidates as well as their parents. So, it’s the time to sit back and relax as you have got the right way to find all the information you need. You just have to go online, and you will get everything related to your aimed research. As you have all the important schedules and essential dates, you will never any chance that knocks at your door.

So we can choose some better options for medical education with the help of this article.

Self-teach versus formal instruction


The open deliberation among numerous individuals is whether self-teaching children is superior to anything formal training. The previous would be productive if self-teach is done the correct way. Kids receive a redid educational modules gave by their folks while in a tuition based school, they are compelled to realize whatever is instructed by the educators. Every kid is one of a kind and the style of taking in varies starting with one tyke then onto the next. A few kids are great at getting a handle on data from course readings and a hypothesis based strategy would be valuable for them yet some of them favor functional technique for instructing where it’s simple for them to recall and this sort of a methodology is additionally all the more fascinating to them.

Guardians who self-teach their children ought to give an all the more satisfying and solid learning environment for their children. Aside from scholastics, youngsters figure out how to bond with their family, which is leeway in self-teach. Great propensities can be imparted in them. Aside from focusing on scholastics, kids have abundant time to build up their abilities. Everybody gains from every single undertaking that we do, whether it is normal or an onetime assignment. Youngsters can go for music classes, swimming, skating and so on. They can do well in their scholastics and also extracurricular exercises though there is a period requirement in tuition based schools. A few schools request youngsters to be more centered around scholastics than extracurricular exercises, as they need more evaluations.

All the more frequently when guardians measure the alternatives of self-teach and formal instruction, one noteworthy issue is that children don’t get a chance to mingle if guardians self-teach them. At school, kids can play together and take an interest in rivalries. It’s simple for them to mingle yet peer impact can change the disposition of your children effortlessly and it’s troublesome for guardians to know whether their children are being affected in the privilege or the wrong way. Youngsters can simply cooperate and coexist with different children who are being self-taught by their folks. They have a tendency to wind up more co agent and trained. Kids who are self-taught will get more consideration and examining about their scholastics and extracurricular exercises turns out to be simple, as youngsters feel more great in such a situation.

Sending your kid to a tuition based school is costly. Course charge, instructive treks, ventures, expense of assets, transportation are costly though when guardians self-teach they realize what precisely their youngsters require and in view of that they can purchase the required materials. At the point when your children join the other self-taught ones, instructive excursions will be less costly and some of the time you require pay even a penny. A few people trust that kids who are being self-taught will experience issues in getting school affirmations which will prompt less number of profession open doors however that is not valid as most universities incline toward self-taught kids as they are more restrained and self persuaded to learn new things. In self-teach, each guardian battles to get their kids in the right track before all else in any case they figure out how to self-teach their children.

Pakistan’s Education System – Problems and Reasons for Policy Failure

After more than a half century of independence, nearly half of Pakistan’s population is still illiterate. According toHathaway (2005), Pakistan’s education system is regularly cited as one of the most serious impediments preventing the country from achieving its potential.

Poorly produced and inadequately implemented educational policies and plans have been major hurdles in the development of the education sector in Pakistan. Throughout our history, new policies and plans have often been prepared without giving due consideration to the causes of failure of previous policies and plans.

In order to address these problems, there is a need for the formulation of rational policies and plans as well as an adequate system for their implementation. The objective of this paper is to scrutinize the problems being faced by the education sector in Pakistan. It also seeks to highlight the reasons for the failure of the national education policy.

Background of Pakistan’s Education System

According to several international assessments, Pakistan is far from achieving the goal of Education for All (henceforth, EFA). The EFA was set to be attained by all developing countries under the Dakar Framework decided at a meeting held in Senegal in 2000. UNESCO attributes Pakistan’s placement at a lower EFA development Index (EDI) category to low primary school participation, adult illiteracy, gender disparities, inequalities in education and poor quality of education. The adult literacy rate in Pakistan is under 50 percent, while less than one-third of adult women have a functional reading ability. Pakistan is unlikely to achieve the adult literacy target by 2015. Progress is slow, while gender parity goal is at risk of not being achieved in 2015. Moreover, more than 6 million children are out of school. (UNESCO 2007)

Key Performance Indicators for Education Systems

The frequently used indicators are adult literacy rates, male and female enrollment at different levels and in different areas of the country; the dropout rates, the amount of resources committed to education as a proportion of the GDP and, finally, some measure of the quality of education provided. To these indicators, one should also add the quality of data and information available about education. Unfortunately, Pakistan’s record is relatively poor on all these counts.

An Overview of Problems being faced by Pakistan’s Education Sector

According to the Asian Development Bank, Pakistan’s education sector is marred by corruption, strong gender and regional inequalities and insufficient budget allocations, leading to social imbalances and poor delivery of services in the public sector.

Insufficient Budget Allocation

While the share of public education expenditure in national budgets increased in many regional countries moving towards Universal Primary Education (UPE), it has declined in Pakistan. According to the International Crisis Group, Pakistan is one of only 12 countries in the world that spends less than 2 percent of its GDP on education.

Under utilization of Funds

Less than fifty percent of the funds allocated for development expenditure of the Ministry of Education at the federal level are actually utilized (Aly 2007). A major reason for this underutilization of funds is their complex financial allocation and release system.


Corruption is one of the major contributing factors for failure of educational policy. It is due to lack of accountability and transparency along with low salaries of the staff. An estimated Rs. 2,594 million out of a total of Rs. 7,016 million provided for improvement of school facilities such as buildings, electricity, drinkable water, etc had gone unaccounted during the fiscal periods 2001-06. (UNESCO 2007) Similarly more than 70% literacy centres in Punjab are inoperative or exist only on paper(ADBP 2007).

Gender Discrimination and Regional Inequalities

The adult female illiteracy rate in the country was twice as high as for males, according to a report released by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in September. The illiteracy rate was 23.3% for males and 46.9% for females. According to the National Economic Survey, Balochistan had the largest number of schools in disorder. It also had the lowest number of educational institutions, the lowest literacy rate among both males and females, the lowest ranking in the Gender Parity Index and the fewest private educational institutes in the country.

Multiplicity of Systems leading to Social Imbalances

There are many systems working in the country, resulting in social division and conflict. The students from the elite class follow the “O” and “A” levels curriculum instead of Pakistan’s domestic poor quality curriculum. They have little or no awareness of their religion and culture whereas those passing out from Urdu medium schools are usually destined to work in clerical and lower level positions. Religious madrassas churn out yet another class that is usually unaware of the world outside their own.

Poor Delivery of Services leading to Low Enrolment in Schools

Teacher absenteeism, untrained teachers, inadequate materials and obsolete teaching methods are the main reasons for low enrolment in schools.According to Burki, most of the public schools are poorly managed, impart education of poor quality, use poorly written textbooks and use curricula that are not relevant for the needs of the 21st century.

The dropout rate of those lucky enough to be enrolled was 45%. According to several reports, most of the public sector educational institutions remain in a state of disrepair and lack even basic facilities resulting in substandard education. There are four areas that cry for immediate attention; curriculum, textbooks, examinations, and teacher training. (Hoodbhoy 2001)

Private Schools

In comparison with other countries; private basic education in Pakistan enrolls more students than in all countries in the region. The rapid growth of private schools and teaching academies reflects the people’s lack of trust in the public sector schools coupled with a deficiency of sufficient educational institutions to cater to the needs of the fast growing population. However, most of the private schools are only slightly better than the public ones. A few elite schools offer quality education but their inflated fee structure continues to be a problem.

The Policy Environment and Reasons for its Failure

National Education Policy (1998-2010) was prepared prior to Dakar, but since 2001, the Ministry of Education has developed a number of interrelated policy documents after active consultations with NGOs and international development agencies. However, serious problems exist in the policy environment.

Firstly, these problems are arising due to lack of commitment and inefficient management on part of the state. The policy lacks long term vision and its implementation is affected by undue political interference. Moreover, it is not evidence based and reflects the vested interests of the authorities. It does nothing to promote rational and critical thinking skillsamongst the students.

Additionally, there is a lack of resource commitment, absence of a realistic implementation plan and poor utilization of resources which are allocated. As relevant statistics are not available, implementation of the education policy has not been successfully executed.

Also, due to weak budgetary planning, the financial data is not centralized and coordinated (USAID 2006). There is a lack of coordination in need assessment and project design and implementation within the government and the donor agencies. Similarly, there is hardly any harmonization between the federal and provincial governments which leads to poor policy implementation.

Another problem with the policy formation process is that little attention is being paid to strengthen the planning wing of the Ministry of Education.

There are also complaints that the government’s consultation with the non-state sector does not necessarily result in action. Teachers have also been generally ignored in the policy making process. So another reason for the failure of our educational policy is consultation without implementation. (UNESCO 2007)

While the policy environment has been favourable to dialogue, and mainly the private but also the public sector has made some contribution to improving access, the challenges to improving quality remain largely unresolved despite much policy deliberation.


As education is the backbone in the development of any nation, the countries that have an effective system of education also happen to be the leaders of the world, both socially and economically. In short it is education, which can turn the population of any country from a burden to human resource. Pakistan’s dire state of education sector and policy implementation demands immediate attention from the government. Without doubling its current financial commitment to education, Pakistan cannot address the numerous challenges to meeting EFA targets by 2015.

All That Is Needed For Medical School Admission

Looking to give your career new wings? Options are endless, and hurdles too that you can’t afford to be unconcerned about. Major hurdles that come your way to success include selection of the right course, and admission in the right college. Choosing the right course, however, depends on your past academic background and individual interest. But the actual confrontation begins when you go to a medical school for admission, even if you fall under the eligibility criteria.

If you are aimed at being a medical professional, your journey starts with the medical schooladmission. The number of medical schools in a town or city is apparently countable, and each vacates a limited number of seats for a particular medial course. Moreover, the number of candidates applying for the same course is countless. That’s what raises the competition and benefits just a few who are shortlisted. The rest who fail are not considered and are led to the exit rout. It’s a desperate matter that more than half the entrants fall by the wayside. The rest are even more unfortunate, especially those who pass the entrance exam and don’t get into the desired school or college. Sometimes, the school’s location is not suitable for them, while other times, the fee structure is not affordable for them.

Getting into a reputed medical school requires fulfilling the eligibility criteria, appearing in theentrance exam, preparing for the interview and beating the other competitors who are applying for the same. It also requires a lot of frustrating efforts, hard work, proper guidance and months of preparation. Can you do that all on your own? If not, an admission consultant is the right person you should contact.

Admission consultants are professionals who give expert advice on how to get into a medical school. They offer the best comprehensive consulting services, helping the candidates choose the right course and school. They also enhance your application and make theadmission process easier. Assisted by the consultant, you’ll get admission in the desired school or college. After you get medical school admission, a promising career is waiting to welcome you with spread arms. If you need help in medical school admission, look online for reliable consulting services. There are many online firms that provide expert medicaladmission consulting services. All you can do to access them is search through the internet with the keyword like “medical school admission”.

Overseas Education Consultant – How to Choose One

Now-a-Days students prefer to study abroad because of wide range of opportunities opening up there. With the increase in number of courses available and subjects offered in various streams, the requirement of education consultants has tremendously felt by the students in recent years.

Large number of courses and colleges the student may be confused and couldn’t decide which path to take. In such situation, a professional assistance is what you need to get proper guidance and make a good career choice. At that situation we need a good Education Consultant who clears all the doubts about Study Overseas Process.


Overseas Educational Consultants plays an important role from selecting the right university and the right course to applying and receiving financial, educational assistance. A reliable Education Consultant will remove all your confusion about the course, colleges/Universities and some other things which you need for your Study Abroad Program.

Points to keep in mind to choose Overseas Education Consultants

  • It is important to check the background and year of existence of consultant before going to consult.
  • Check whether the consultant should have the deep knowledge about Academic Assessments.
  • If you check out the internet, you will also find the success rate of the visa it has attained in offering students.
  • Check whether the consultant providing all the needs of student making overseas or not.
  • Check if the education consultant ensures students scholarships and placements.
  • Check out the list of countries given by the consultant so that you can have the idea about the qualification required by the different countries.

Aegis Overseas assist students in pursuing overseas education in Universities at USA, UK, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Germany, Ireland and Singapore. We are solution-oriented company, which specializes in tailoring career pathways to suit individual profiles within the constraints that may prevail in each case.

Why should you choose Aegis Overseas Education Consultant

  • Aegis Overseas Group is working closely with more than 200 universities in USA, UK, Australia, New Zealand and Canada and Singapore to meet the ever-growing demand for overseas education.
  • Aegis Overseas helps the students to create a balanced curriculum and assessment program – A Complete Educational Plan.
  • Aegis Overseas Education consultants have deep knowledge to help students in choosing the best university, college, location and the course in your desired field.
  • Aegis Overseas Education consultants help the students from the starting to end of admission procedures like selection of the course, to filling the application form, to document submission to follow-up with college representatives etc…
  • Aegis Overseas Education Consultants can also helps the students in obtaining Education Loans.
  • Aegis Overseas Education Consultants would assist the students in securing Scholarships from the respective Universities/Colleges.
  • Aegis Overseas Education Consultants provide assistance in career Counseling, Admission Guidance, Visa Documentation, Coaching, Accommodation, Part-time job, Pre departure briefings, etc.
  • Aegis Overseas helps the students not only in getting themselves prepared in performing formalities better during pre-completion of the course but also help them to know what kind of jobs they can do their and earn an attractive amount of money, simultaneously with their studies and after the completion of study.

Primary School Education And A Different Idea For Teaching

With the greatest intentions each successive government has devalued the true values ofprimary school education.

The goal of making society more equal has resulted in the teaching of predetermined amounts of knowledge with rigid syllabuses and assessment by examinations which are made publicly competitive through league tables.

A desire to make the economy much more productive has weakened the intellectual content of curricula and put into question the place and importance of some aspects of learning, those that can readily be measured, at the expense of others.

Learning for learnings sake across the vast scope of likely disciplines has been weakened. As a result, creativity, curiosity, enterprise and problem solving has been replaced by ‘teaching to the test’.

The future for both children and teachers alike is not about restoring the methods and practices of the Victorian era. It is to use the new expertise gained through an insight and understanding as to how different children learn in different ways, use the accumulated knowledge of new technologies and recognise and value the recent changes and developments of pedagogy.

This will require a new group of professional leaders, teachers, who not only are free to do their own thinking but share a philosophy and expertise that springs from deep convictions and shared successes. These teachers will be plucked from the currect batch of teachers and then developed and retrained. They will also come from new hires to teaching from all levels of society as well as Universities.

Change in the educational system will be welcomed by everyone who has a passion for teaching and educating other people and improving self confidence, knowledge, understanding and skills.

In order for this to happen it will be absolutely necessary for educational institutions at all levels to become autonomous over what is taught and how. In most cases primary schools must develop a new definition for themselves and their position in their immediate community. The staff who work with learners must have the authority to introduce new methods of learning which build on their best past experiences and reach out to develop different methods of engaging with learning that have yet to be discovered.

This kind of primary teaching and learning will be innovative and rigorous in its design and implementation and under constant review as new opportunities occur. If this path is followed, it will result in a cultural movement in the UK society to the point where education and achievement in the primary school are once again greatly valued.

Free Counselling to Study Abroad

Make-counseling work

Seeking the advice of an academic or career counselor has become common practice today. However, students need to make sure they ask all the right questions, finds Sherin Mammen

1 have a diploma in fashion designing and want to set up my own boutique. How should I go about pursuing my dream?”This is just one of the many queries career counselors receive on a regular basis. In fact, most newspapers devote an entire page of their supplements for career guidance or educational counseling. Look up the yellow pages and you’ll find numerous entries of counselors, with career counselors being the most prominent. The rise in career options and educational courses has led to an increase in demand for career and education counseling. But how do counselors really make a difference? Shouldn’t a professional qualification, such as an MBA in finance or an engineering degree in computers, automatically suggests career options? “Most students choose careers based on academic grades, not on their strengths or passion. Since we spend most of our adult life at the workplace, it is important to find engaging jobs that will make us productive and emotionally competent,” says Srividya Iyer, Head Counselor, Career Guidance, Young Buzz India Ltd.


According to Srividya, career counseling is the process of facilitating and empowering students towards making the right career decisions. Professional counselors use psychometric assessments to test the intelligence and aptitude of students.”The process is in-depth and designed to provide the kind of motivation that can come only from a genuine understanding of why certain careers are likely to suit you better than others,” adds Suchitra Surve, Director of Growth Centre (I) Pvt Ltd. A career counselor helps you interpret your profile and identify career options for you; if you are a student, your parents might be requested to accompany you. At the end of the session, you will receive a report that explains suitable career options and their job descriptions. Most counselors also hold follow-up sessions for you if required.


Remember, career or academic counselors only initiate a process; the onus is on you to take it forward and achieve your goal. Also, make sure your counselor is not taking you for a ride. An advertisement guaranteeing that perfect job, salary and growth prospects could often be misleading. So if you are thinking of going to a counselor, start by asking the right questions.

Self-teach versus formal instruction


The open deliberation among numerous individuals is whether self-teaching children is superior to anything formal training. The previous would be productive if self-teach is done the correct way. Kids receive a redid educational modules gave by their folks while in a tuition based school, they are compelled to realize whatever is instructed by the educators. Every kid is one of a kind and the style of taking in varies starting with one tyke then onto the next. A few kids are great at getting a handle on data from course readings and a hypothesis based strategy would be valuable for them yet some of them favor functional technique for instructing where it’s simple for them to recall and this sort of a methodology is additionally all the more fascinating to them.

Guardians who self-teach their children ought to give an all the more satisfying and solid learning environment for their children. Aside from scholastics, youngsters figure out how to bond with their family, which is leeway in self-teach. Great propensities can be imparted in them. Aside from focusing on scholastics, kids have abundant time to build up their abilities. Everybody gains from every single undertaking that we do, whether it is normal or an onetime assignment. Youngsters can go for music classes, swimming, skating and so on. They can do well in their scholastics and also extracurricular exercises though there is a period requirement in tuition based schools. A few schools request youngsters to be more centered around scholastics than extracurricular exercises, as they need more evaluations.

All the more frequently when guardians measure the alternatives of self-teach and formal instruction, one noteworthy issue is that children don’t get a chance to mingle if guardians self-teach them. At school, kids can play together and take an interest in rivalries. It’s simple for them to mingle yet peer impact can change the disposition of your children effortlessly and it’s troublesome for guardians to know whether their children are being affected in the privilege or the wrong way. Youngsters can simply cooperate and coexist with different children who are being self-taught by their folks. They have a tendency to wind up more co agent and trained. Kids who are self-taught will get more consideration and examining about their scholastics and extracurricular exercises turns out to be simple, as youngsters feel more great in such a situation.

Sending your kid to a tuition based school is costly. Course charge, instructive treks, ventures, expense of assets, transportation are costly though when guardians self-teach they realize what precisely their youngsters require and in view of that they can purchase the required materials. At the point when your children join the other self-taught ones, instructive excursions will be less costly and some of the time you require pay even a penny. A few people trust that kids who are being self-taught will experience issues in getting school affirmations which will prompt less number of profession open doors however that is not valid as most universities incline toward self-taught kids as they are more restrained and self persuaded to learn new things. In self-teach, each guardian battles to get their kids in the right track before all else in any case they figure out how to self-teach their children.

Elementary School Speeches Are About New Beginnings

Elementary school graduation speeches should reflect the age of the students. For that reason they should be short, have a touch of humour and be very easy to understand.

Elementary School speeches need to have the personal touch. They should refer to events and happenings during the school life of the students in question. It might be about a trip abroad or about an important volleyball match they played.  If the speaker is a teacher he or she should speak of adventures shared together over their time at that Elementary School.

Obviously such speeches should include a welcome to the parents of the children graduating.  They should be light-hearted in tone because after all you are celebrating. The students should be told that the celebration is for and about them. You should mention how proud their school is of them and how you know they will be a credit to you whatever new school they attend.

Elementary School speeches should reflect the fact that young children believe that wonderful things can happen. They should encourage them to believe in their hopes and dreams. They should speak of working hard to make those dreams come true.

Such children might also be a little apprehensive about the future, about leaving friends behind as they move on. Such speeches should be reassuring and comforting painting a picture of what is going to happen when they go on to their new school. Thespeeches should clarify the fact that there will be someone there to guide them and show them the ropes.

Teachers often have a great bond with elementarystudents and their Elementary School speechesshould reflect this fact. The students should know that they can always go back to their old school for advice or guidance because someone who has known you as a child will know your capabilities and understand your worries. They should be always made to feel that they will be welcome back to their Elementary School.   In fact you can make them laugh when you tell them they might even come visiting when they become President.

Above all, Elementary graduation speeches should paint pictures.  You might compare their move to that of someone at a certain stage in a race or to an actor who has a certain  part in a play where he/she have yet to learn their lines and moves.  Elementary School speechesshould end with a blessing or good luck wish.

Benefits of studying in international schools in Mumbai

With the education sector booming in the country, several international schools have come up in different parts of the country. These schools are now giving tough competition to the best schools in Mumbai. International schools provide a global environment to students and help in their overall development to transform them into well-read people to create a future for the nation.

Here are a few benefits that students enjoy from studying in an international or CBSE schools in Mumbai:

  1. International curriculum

Most international schools in Mumbai follow international curriculum, which is the International Baccalaureate programme. This education model is accepted by most universities and colleges abroad. So a student can easily gain entry into an international college with his international schooling background.

  1. Exposure to global culture

International schools mostly have students from all parts of the nation. This provides students with an exposure of different cultures and lifestyles. This makes them more accommodative towards upcoming challenges and opportunities. It can also give them an edge while seekingadmission in international schools.

  1. Emphasis on extra-curricular activities

CBSE schools in Mumbai place a lot of importance on extra-curricular activities, that allows students in their all round development. Such activities enhance the confidence level of students and make them competent enough.

  1. Bright start to a brighter future

International schools can be the best start for your child’s future. The curriculum and exposure they get in international schools prepare them for studies and careers in foreign countries.

How to choose the best  international school in Mumbai?

There are several schools in Mumbai. However, an international school can give your child more exposure and experience than all other best schools in Mumbai. In case you are planning to get your child admitted, here’s how you should pick the right international school for your child:

  • Survey the School

Visit the school to understand its environment. Do the students look happy? Do the teachers look friendly? You can also speak to the teachers to understand the curriculum, practices of the school, reporting system etc.

  • Understand more about the curriculum

Speak to the teachers and administrative staff to understand what the curriculum is like. You can also check for details such as the time period, its affiliations, programmes, scholarshipsetc.

  • Your involvement

Speak with the school’s representatives to understand to what level the school will involve you in your child’s education programme. Find out how frequently parent teacher meetings are held or if the school offers programmes for parent education etc.

Increasing Demand for Education Consultants in the Present Scenario

An increasing number of students these days prefer getting their education completed in universities abroad because it brings an array of new opportunities in foreign land. It has become quite feasible for one to bear the high fee attached with foreign education and high costs of living in far away land because of easy availability of education loan. There have been an increased number of students, who are seeking to make a career in foreign land and this in turn have greatly influenced the rising demand for educational consultants to large extent. After realising the rising demand for educational consultant in today’s scenario there are many consultancies coming up with the main motto to provide right guidance and to the willing candidates.

With the wide number of specialisation to choose from and subjects offered in varied streams, the need for education consultants has been actually felt by the students in the past few years. The role of educational consultants is to provide vast information on the country and the prevailing culture where the students wish to study, the foreign university they wish to join and course they would wish to select. Counsellors are present in the present scenario to provide counselling to students who are confused about their choices as far as foreign education is concerned. Whether they are not able to decide what course should they get enrolled into or how much exposure and opportunities a particular course would provide them. The plethora of options available in the types of courses offered to the students has made them quite confused about the possibilities and future success of a particular course. Peer pressure has been one of the main reasons that contribute to the challenges students face in academic and they are opting for foreign education to gain competitive edge over their peers.

This gives rise to the need to visit an educational consultant to seek detailed information, get valuable suggestions as well as insights from those counsellors, who have helped many by building the right career path. Foreign education consultants help students seeking foreign education to get their dream of studying in USA fulfilled by getting them admission in recognised universities abroad. The consultants also help students in completing the necessary formalities like documentation while getting enrolled in a foreign university. There has been a rise in the number of education consultants these days with their branches in various countries just because of the increasing demand for educational consultants. However, in the digital era, one can find a lot of information about foreign land and the universities abroad by searching extensively without the need of consulting a consultant. But the main benefit of seeking help from a consultant is that they help one during the whole admission procedure right from the beginning to the end.

The educational consultants have started offering varied types of services these days in addition to providing right career guidance and detailed information. Some of the services offered by consultants include helping one secure education loan, passport and visa facilities,accommodation facilities, securing work permit, etc. Some of the services also include providing coaching for entrance examinations, short term personality development programs, etc. that help one deal with various complexities during the admission procedure like face to face interviews, group discussions, etc. The education consultants offered the need assistance to the students in an era where there is plenty of information and plethora of options to choose from.

The Advantages of International Schools

Parents usually have the option to send their kids to public schools, private schools, foreign system schools or international schools. However, over the last few years, the number of parents who send their children to international schools has increased considerably. Today more and more parents and guardians are opting to send their young ones to study abroad. The reason behind this trend could probably be the many advantages that international institutions have, over the local ones. The following are a few reasons why you should enrol your children in an international school.

Gain more exposure

There is no denying that the world is becoming a global village. So in order for parents to prepare their children to meet international standards in their skills, they must take them tointernational schools. The teachers in this schools usually teach as per the international standards.

Learn diverse traditions

Children can learn lots of things about different countries. They also become familiar with the culture of different people. The students in these schools come from different countries and social backgrounds. So sending them to international school will help them gain a wider perspective not for their own culture, but for others as well.

Linguistic skills

Taking him or her to study abroad will definitely help them to speak the English language fluently. English is normally the common language among various students from different parts of the world. Most students of international schools are very good at both written and spoken English. Remember proficiency in the English language is one of the key factors considered by most employers. International schools can directly boosts a child’s career potential. In addition, interacting with other kids from other countries will enable to learn other languages too.

School reputation

International schools such as ACS Egham and TASIS England are known to produce the highest possible level of education. So enrolling children to one of these schools will give them an edge over students from local schools. They will be able boost their curriculum vitae just because they have come from reputable international schools. They will also have an easy time when it comes to university applications.

Overall personal development

By studying abroad, are provided unique learning opportunities beyond classroom. For example, by living with the locals, a foreign student will understand first-hand what stereotyping is. It will help him realise that stereotyping others is not a good thing. Furthermore, a combination of various factors such as increased knowledge sharing, improved intelligence and learning tolerance contributes to the overall personal development of the student. Personality development is one of the most important life skills, which can help them significantly when they move on to build their careers.

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, children attending internal schools leave school well prepared for future career. These international institutions create an excellent environment for the students to learn, play and excel. Without doubt, international learning institutions have an edge over indigenous schools.

If you are looking for a reputable international school for your children in the UK, then you can’t go wrong with either ACS Egham or the TASIS England. If your son or daughter is a graduate of any of these schools, they will definitely be able to get a good job, regardless of where they are in the world.

Williamsburg Northside a Brooklyn Elementary School Introduces physical and health education classes

Williamsburg Northside Lower School, a Brooklyn elementary school, offers various health and physical education classes for its students. According to the school, the purpose of the physical education program is to empower the Brooklyn elementary school’s students to sustain regular, lifelong physical activity as a foundation for a healthy, productive, and fulfilling life.

Becoming a physically educated person is a developmental process that begins in early childhood and continues throughout one’s life. The physical education program offers fundamental movement skills in the area of body awareness, spatial orientation, relationships, object manipulation, games, and sports. Principles of good sportsmanship, as well as respectful competition and safety in the gymnasium are emphasized throughout the year. These programs vary according to age groups and grades.


The program emphasizes body and spatial awareness, locomotor and non-locomotor skills. Its aim is for children to feel enjoyment and confidence in themselves and their abilities. Goals and activities include:

  • Locomotor skills—hopping, skipping, jumping
  • Non-manipulative skills—balancing, rolling, stretching
  • Manipulative skill—dribbling, volleying, collecting
  • Cooperative games
  •  The ability to demonstrate healthful practices such as washing hands, covering one’s mouth when coughing or sneezing, and brushing and flossing teeth.

First grade:

First grade builds on the skills already learned, with a greater emphasis on manipulative skills. Students of the Brooklyn elementary are also given an opportunity to explore stationary and moving balance as well as health and fitness concepts. Goals and activities include:

  • Experience with manipulative skills such as throwing, catching, volleying, and dribbling
  • Striking with implements—rackets, bats, hockey sticks
  • Introduction to health-and-fitness topics such as the food guide and physical activity pyramids
  • Understand how behaviors such as food selection, exercise, and rest affect growth and development.

Second Grade:

Second grade involves increased interaction between traveling and directions, levels (high, medium, low) and pathways (curved, straight, zigzag). Goals and activities include:

  • Circus arts—juggling, spinning plates
  • Bowling
  • Chasing, fleeing, dodging
  • Kicking and punting
  • The ability to demonstrate the use of interpersonal skills to enhance health

Third Grade:

Third grade builds on the curriculum by working toward demonstrating the mature form of moving in selected combinations of locomotor, non-locomotor, and manipulative skills. Goals include the ability to:

  • Identify movement in terms of effort (how the body moves), space (where the body moves), and relationships (with objects, people or both).
  • Know and apply principles and components of health-related fitness.
  • Begin to demonstrate mature form in various skills.
  • Develop injury prevention and management strategies for personal health.

Fourth Grade:

Although health issues are integrated throughout theelementary years, they are formally discussed beginning in fourth grade.

1)      Motor: Small-sided games—that is, few players per team—are introduced in fourth grade.

Students use cooperation and problem-solving skills to accomplish group or team goals.

Goals include the ability to:

  • Respond to winning and losing with dignity and understanding
  • Experiences with increased interaction between locomotor skills, non-locomotor skills, and manipulative skills
  • Understand strategies related to offense and defense


2)      Health: In fourth grade there is a deeper look into the influence of culture, media, technology, and other factors on health. Health is influenced by a variety of factors, including the cultural context as well as media and technology. Students of the Brooklyn elementary school use their critical thinking and problem-solving skills to analyze, evaluate, and interpret the influence of these factors on health. The goals include:


  • Describing how culture influences personal health behaviors
  • Explaining how information from school and family influences health
  • Describing ways technology can influence health
  • Explaining how media influences thoughts, feelings, and health behaviors

Fifth Grade:

1)      Motor: Fifth graders begin identifying muscle groups when performing specific actions and applying movement concepts using speed variables. Goals include the ability to:

  • Recognize and communicate feedback
  • Understand fitness components related to cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance and flexibility
  • Understand, respect, and appreciate individuals on the basis of their unique characteristics as well as their contributions to a group.

2)      Health: In fifth grade, the students are expected to demonstrate an understanding of the five aspects of health —mental, emotional, physical, social, and spiritual—and the wellness spectrum—a scale showing possible health conditions from premature death to optimal health—and how they relate to overall health. The Brooklyn Elementary students also learn about the negative impact chemical substances can have on health. The program discusses tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, as well as describes the differences between helpful and potentially harmful substances. Objectives include:

  • Identifying ways to cope with or seek assistance as necessary when confronted with situations involving alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs
  • Describing the cycle of growth and development in humans and other animal species
  • Using goal-setting and decision-making skills to enhance health

Physical Education Importance


Instruction in the consideration and advancement of the human body, focusing on sports and including cleanliness is called physical training. Physical instruction is an imperative piece of instructive action in which the fundamental concern is with substantial developments and which happens in an instructive foundation. Physical Education points at physical improvement as well as worried with instruction of the entire identity of a man’s conduct, natural, tasteful, neuromuscular, morals and feeling and so forth.

Distinctive individuals characterize physical instruction significance in various words:

1. Jackson R. Sharman calls attention to that physical training is that a portion of instruction which happens through exercises, which includes the engine system of human body which results in an individual’s defining conduct designs.

2. Charles A. Bucher characterizes physical training, a basic piece of aggregate instruction procedure, is a field of try which has as its point the improvement of physically, rationally, candidly and socially fit nationals through the medium of physical exercises which have been chosen with a perspective to understanding these results.”

3. Pushcart characterized Physical Education as a training of and through human development where a large number of instructive destinations are accomplished by method for huge muscle exercises including sports, amusements, gymnastic, move and work out.

4. As indicated by Webster’s Dictionary Physical training is a piece of training which gives directions in the improvement and consideration of the body randing from basic callisthenic activities to a course of study giving preparing in cleanliness, acrobatic and the execution and administration of games diversions.

5. Focal Advisory Board of physical Education and Recreation characterizes Physical training as an instruction through physical exercises for the improvement of aggregate identity of the youngster to its completion and flawlessness in body, psyche and soul.

Significance and advantages of physical instruction

Physical wellness is a standout amongst the most essential elements for the living with a sound way of life. Physical instruction advances the significance of standard wellness movement in the routine furthermore helps the understudies to keep up their wellness, build up their solid quality, expand their stamina and in this manner extend their physical capacities to an ideal level.

In the present world, the universe of innovation, the majority of us are living idle way of life. We ride rather than walk, sit rather than stand and watches rather than members. Such sort of dormancy or inactive life is harming to mental and physical wellbeing. In this way, physical instruction is most imperative as a piece of adjusted solid living.

1. Physical training is fundamental amid rudimentary and auxiliary instruction for the correct

development and improvement of understudy.

2. To keep up great wellbeing and wellness amid adulthood physical training is exceptionally


3. Amid maturity, physical instruction is vital to counteract and treat different sicknesses

furthermore, sickness.

4. To counteract and treat different sicknesses and illness in maturity physical training is exceptionally gainful.

5. It is vital as it gives us the information of our bodies from musculoskeletal,

physiological and biochemical perspective.

6-physical instruction mindful we about our bodies from musculoskeletal, physiological and biochemical perspective.

7. It shows us different physical exercises that can be drilled now in later life such

as engine abilities for the recreations and games of volleyball, tennis, swimming et cetera.

8-We considered Value moral conduct in all a player in life by physical training.

9. Physical training shows us the significance of physical wellness and how to turn into

physically fit.

10. It is vital for tasteful reasons as by participate in physical work out regimes

like vaulting and move, magnificence and elegance in developed in the development.

11. It is likewise essential for purge reasons with mean discharging of vitality, feeling,

pressure or disappointment and a few people let off their additional steam by taking an interest different

amusements and games which are a piece of physical instruction.

Along these lines physical instruction helps us in all parts of our life.

Health ministry rankings help you choose a medical school abroad



                        Era’s Lucknow Medical College And Hospital


Those looking to study medicine abroad have their priorities cut out — apart from choosing a reputed institute, they have to factor in tuition fees, cost of living and the city or country they want to go to.

To make their search easy, the ministry of health and family welfare has come up with a list of medical institutes they can apply to as degrees from these universities will hold value in India too.

The institutes have been ranked on the basis of how students have performed in a screening test, the Foreign Medical Graduate Examination (FMGE) conducted by the National Board of Examinations (NBE).

The FMGE is a licensure exam which screens out testtakers who do not have the aptitude for medicine and select those who are capable of boosting the country’s physician workforce with their knowledge and skills.

The l i st has around 286 institutions from 42 countries, including Russia, Ukraine, China, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Philippines, United Arab Emirates and Romania. NBE has ranked institutes on the basis of results of around 35,000 students who cleared their MBBS exams between 2012 and 2014.

About 9,690 Indian students passed t he screening t est during this period with an overall pass percentage of about 27%.

The maximum number of graduates, according to the ranking, were from China (11,825) with a pass percentage of 18.9%, followed by Russia (5,950) with a pass percentage of 18.4%, Ukraine (3,520) with a pass percentage of 19.1% and Nepal (3,163) with a pass percentage of 21.2%.

There are 16 colleges and universities from where Indian students have graduated in the NBE screening test with a pass percentage of 100%.

Two colle ges in China – Chenyang Medical College and College of the Left Side of China have a pass percentage of 100% Indians in the test. Russia’s Kyrgyz Russian Slavic University also has a pass percentage of 100% as has Ukraine’s VN Karazin Kharkiv National Medical University. Nepal’s Nobel Medical College has been ranked number one on the NBE list with a pass percentage of 32%.

BP Koirala I nstitute of Health Sciences is a close second with a pass percentage of 31%.

With increasing competition and fewer MBBS seats in India for lakhs of students who apply, many medical aspirants contemplate pursuing education abroad in countries such as China, Ukraine, Russia and the Philippines.

Another reason for choosing these countries over others is the cheaper educational cost when compared to the more expensive countries like the US or UK.

Experts say the health ministry move will help students as well as the Indian medical fraternity.

“Generally speaking, a ranking based on objectively structured criteria and defined weightage accruable thereto is definitely useful for a student to make an appropriate choice for seeking admission to a concerned college. An objectively-based categorisation is of definite use to the stakeholders,” says Dr Jayshree Mehta, president, Medical Council of India.

Dr Mehta says t hat t he present scenario would be af fected to the extent that the Indian students opting for foreign medical qualifications could make an ‘informed choice’ while selecting an institute. “This would be on the basis of specific quality information handily available to him so that the choice is not blind in nature but is based on subtle relevant information. However, the ranking would turn out to be of consequence and relevance provided it is made in an objective and definitive manner,” she adds.

Dr KK Aggarwal, honorary secretary general, Indian Medical Association, agrees. “We must remember that students make institutions and institutions do not make students.

An institution like AIIMS has the best results because the best students go there. Through such a ranking, students can know the pass percentage of these institutions. China and Russia have the cheapest medical fee and that is why most students go there. This kind of ranking helps.”


Students will not be cheated now

Professor Dr Bipin Batra, additional director, National Board of Examinations (NBE), elaborates how the medical school rankings will help students and institutions. Excerpts from an interview.

Do you think the medical school rankings will help Indian students wanting to pursue medical education abroad?

Yes. As of now, potential candidates are dependent on information given by agents of foreign medical institutions operational in India or they are able to get very limited information. Our interactions with foreign medical graduates over the years have highlighted a dirty nexus of agents duping candidates. This information will help aspirants make an informed choice. We are working to compile basic data on the foreign medical institutions for candidates.

Do you think it will help prevent any cases of invalid medical degrees in India?

Yes it will. Despite a liberal regulatory framework for overseas graduates appearing in the screening test, there are some candidates who end up pursuing MBBS courses in which guidelines have been violated. This information about data on previous sessions validates the track record of institutes in terms of their contribution to the landscape. If any institute does not find a place on the list, the aspirant has to do due diligence for the same.

What about regulations for overseas PG courses?

The regulatory framework for overseas PG courses is ambiguous and should be more streamlined.

What’s your take on this ranking?


An MCI certificate is a must

The health ministry has issued guidelines for Indian students and the foreign medical institutions admitting them. To take the FMGE exam, a candidate must obtain an eligibility certificate (EC) from the Medical Council of India (MCI) before seeking admission in an institute abroad. Students have been advised to exercise due diligence in selecting foreign institutions and countries. They must analyse the quality of medical education imparted there with respect to the requirements of clearing FMGE.

They have also been advised to check the medium of medical education in the college where they seek admission and factors such as monthly living expenses, availability of hostel facility etc.

Foreign medical institutions have been advised to select Indian candidates for their medical courses themselves and not rely on ‘agents’. They must also ensure that they comply with the necessary Indian regulations, pay attention to MBBS curriculum in India and statutory requirements for medical colleges in India in terms of faculty, infrastructure and clinical competencies at the undergraduate level.

The ministry has suggested that the MCI can consider taking an undertaking from the candidates that they have been given full and correct information by the college/university about tuition and other fees, facilities, curriculum of the course, language of instruction/teaching, availability of hostel facilities, monthly living expenses etc.

A copy of the Indian MBBS curriculum as per Graduate Medical Regulation can also be made available to the candidates at the time of issuing the EC so that they can refer to it in the context of their training at overseas medical institutions.

How to Become an Elementary School Teacher

If you’ve thought about becoming a teacher, one of the most important decisions you may have to make is which level of teaching suits you the best. Elementary, secondary, and post-secondary teaching all have very different characteristics and requirements, and shifting tracks once you get started would be likely to require that you go back to school. Therefore, your career path may be smoother if you choose carefully at the beginning, and focus your educational preparation accordingly.

Suppose you are interested in teaching very young children. In that case, you may want to be aware of the special characteristics that distinguish elementary school teachers, and how you would become an elementary school teacher yourself.

Distinguishing Characteristics of Elementary School Teachers

There are some characteristics that distinguish good teachers at all levels: a solid understanding of the subject matter; good communication skills, energy, creativity, leadership ability, and patience. But what are some of the particular characteristics that distinguishelementary school teachers?

In many ways, those characteristics can be defined by some of the special requirements of the job, such as:

  • A good base of generalist knowledge. Rather than specializing in a particular subject, elementary school teachers often teach a range of subjects to a given class or age group.
  • A fundamental understanding of child psychology. Elementary school children are just learning to learn, and teachers need to be able to perceive how different children are motivated, and what factors may be inhibiting some of them.
  • A basic knowledge of child development. Many learning disabilities are not spotted until a child is in elementary school, and the earlier a teacher can help identify special needs, the more can be done for the child.
  • Sensitivity to non-verbal cues. Small children have often not yet learned how to express themselves clearly, so a sensitivity to non-verbal signals can be the key to communication.
  • A tactful nature for dealing with parents. Parents are an especially important part of the learning experience at the elementary school level, and being able to communicate in a clear yet non-threatening way is a useful attribute.

In addition to the above broad range of skills, there are specific educational credentials needed to become an elementary school teacher.

Elementary School Teacher Education

Although requirements for elementary school teacher education vary from state to state, here are three common elements of most programs:

  • A bachelor’s degree. This would include both a broad background in general studies and specific education in teaching-related subjects such as classroom techniques and child psychology.
  • Student-teaching experience. Education degree programs commonly include a requirement for a student-teaching internship.
  • State certification. Public schools in all 50 states require teachers to be licensed, with the license often specific to the age group being taught. Private schools are less likely to require licensure.

Employment Outlook

Employment growth for teachers is expected to be about typical for the economy as a whole, but it is projected to be especially strong at the elementary school level. This occupation is less cyclical than most, so overall the job market is both promising and stable. Median income levels are above the national average.

Teaching is not an occupation for someone looking to get rich. However, for the personally enriching experience of helping children get a good start along the educational path, it can be an ideal choice.

Medieval Education


Medieval instruction is about training that was directed in the medieval period. Medieval training is seen as a significant surprising type of instruction. Be that as it may, by the fifteenth century, there were possibilities for an understudy to be taught further. A few schools even housed both sexes, however this was amid the day as it were. Youngsters were instructed their essentials, for example, how to peruse and compose. This is on the grounds that these were the fundamental prerequisites in the event that they needed to be acknowledged under apprenticeship in any society.

Medieval instruction likewise comprised of laborer youngsters going to class. In any case, they made up a little number. They were instructed how to peruse and compose, furthermore concentrated on fundamental math. This instruction for workers was generally led at a cloister.

As a major aspect of medieval training, honorable young ladies and even young men were sent to learn at cloisters. There, they would get their fundamental training. The nuns instructed these understudies how to peruse and compose as well. They would likewise show them how to implore. Young ladies were also instructed how to turn and do embroidery in the midst of other household aptitudes. These were taught with a specific end goal to set them up for later life, as these were essential abilities required when a lady got hitched.

In the event that a youngster considered his or her training important at a religious community, he or she would have a devout life. Be that as it may, this was very uncommon for a normal townsman or worker. Additionally, these people would be painstakingly chosen for these positions. On the off chance that they were regarded reasonable as per their attitude, they would be raised by the friars.

Today, medieval instruction practices are still noticeable. The same religious community training understudies are given is a reasonable impression of it. The instruction that kids get at evangelist schools in different parts of the world additionally reflects comparable types of training. A noteworthy distinction that is seen is the across the board presence of books. In medieval times, there were numerous schools that worked without the utilization of books. Understudies were instructed by gifted bosses, and were frequently taught for questionable advantages. The rich or others that provided training in medieval times did as such for their own addition. There were not very many that truly needed to teach individuals in the genuine soul of edifying more personalities.

As time has cruised by, a few parts of medieval training have blurred while others have remained. It can be contended that the parts of medieval training that were valuable with the end goal of instruction have remained. Notwithstanding a few qualities remaining, the general procedure has changed an incredible arrangement. This is on the grounds that instruction couldn’t have the same face as it did many years back. Today’s instruction is not the same as medieval training in such a variety of ways. For instance, you have the incorporation of gathering work and action based learning. You likewise have the consideration of PCs for instruction in this present day age. Nobody in the medieval period would have ever pondered the utilization of such things.

Another vital improvement to specify, and one that is utilized just about all through the world is the Montessori strategy. This is something that did not exist in the medieval period, and it took numerous years for it to be promoted since Maria Montessori initially utilized it. Without a doubt, the Montessori Method can’t be compared to any medieval technique for training. It was produced autonomously as an imaginative educating technique. Notwithstanding the Montessori Method, there are other showing ranges today that have been produced with no medieval training impact.

Despite the fact that medieval training has given the essentials to formal instruction, a few people want to deny medieval training strategies the credit it is given. They trust that the formal strategy for understudies being situated in classrooms would have grown later in any case, whether medieval training utilized this course of action or not. This makes sense since it is unimaginable for some other course of action to be utilized. It is further contended that it is more probable this would have been the situation in present day instruction since understudy cooperation is energized. For better understudy cooperation, a classroom of a reasonable number of understudies would have been suggested. Notwithstanding these contentions, despite everything we find numerous hints of medieval training in our present day setups today.

Is the current educational system imparting life skills education?

Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state, and local. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution, free and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14. The ratio of public schools to private schools in India is 7:5.        Top Admission consultants in delhi

India has made progress in terms of increasing the primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately three-quarters of the population in the 7-10 age group, by 2011.[4] India’s improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development.[5] Much of the progress, especially in higher education and scientific research, has been credited to various public institutions.

Innovate for Digital India Challenge

Across the length and breadth of this country, India faces many challenges. But when tackled with innovation that leverages the power of technology, it can help create a transformed and digitally empowered India.

Shortlisted ideas will have access to a 6 month incubation program, including a 3 month accelerator phase where mentors will assist and guide you to bring your ideas to life through various stages of funding and go to market support. More information on the Challenge is listed below.

India’s education system has long waited for a major revamp. Not that we aren’t seeing positive changes but that dream of having modern high tech education accessible to all seems far from reality. While the previous government tried to bridge the digital divide, the new Narendra Modi-led government has launched a new Digital India Campaign. Unsurprisingly, there are high hopes from the new initiative, which is likely to benet a lot of sectors, especially e-commerce, banking, health and e-governance. Education is also one of the important elements of this initiative. But, will Digital India help education become modern and accessible to all? How can it be achieved? What are other modern technologies that are helping evolve the modern education system? .

Q- Who are going big on digital education Fortunately ?,  tech giants including the likes of Intel, Qualcomm and Tata have made some strides in this direction. Intel recently launched ‘Digital Skills for India’ initiative under which it introduced Digital Skills Training Application that is comprised of modules on Digital Literacy, Financial Inclusion, Healthcare and Cleanliness in ve Indian languages. Qualcomm has launched Play ‘n’ Learn program for school children ages 5-8 in. Qualcomm is providing 3G tablets under the Qualcomm wireless Reach initiative. Samsung recently launched a Smart Learning initiative to provide interactive study material to students. According to an Indalyitcs report, Tata, Reliance and BSNL are among the big names that are going big on the segment. Tata is expanding its school education solution, ‘Classedge’, while Reliance took over 38.5 % stake in digital education company, Extramarks Education Private Limited, through its subsidiary, Infotel Broadband Services Limited. BSNL has teamed up with Greycell 18 Media Private Limited, to launch its online education service ‘Topper Education’.

Why Has Applying To College And College Admissions Become So Complicated?

Applying to college and college admissions just isn’t like it used to be.  In fact, there isn’t much resemblance.  Students used to receive an application from a school and completed the required information.  Although it took a lot of writing, it was a pretty simple process.  Essays were written or typed on the application and everything was turned into the school counseling office.  There, teacher recommendations were added, along with an official transcript and test scores, all to be sent off to each college. SAT and ACT scores were included on the transcript.

Today, applying to college is quite different with almost everything being done online.  While technology has improved some things, sending your application off into cyberspace leaves many students wondering what really happens to it and how do all of the pieces come together at their destination: the colleges. Essays are uploaded onto the online application, recommendations are frequently sent by Naviance, and SAT and ACT test scores are sent directly from the College Board or ACT.  The only part that many high schools are still responsible for is mailing the official high school transcript and a profile of the school.

Most students need help with their college search and applying to college.  They often feel overwhelmed and do not know where to turn.  They can benefit from a knowledgeable parent, high school counselor or educational consultant who has the expertise and time to answer their questions and simplify the college application and college admissions process.  Here are seven areas where college-bound students need assistance:

1.  College Search. Make sure students do a thorough college search and advise them on whether to apply early decision, early action, or regular decision.  Share your knowledge of schools which you think might be a good fit and with which students may not be familiar. Students should keep an open mind during the college search and not limit their choices.

2.  Essays. Brainstorm good essay topics that help students show a side of themselves that has not come through on another part of the application.  Everyone has a story to tell and this is what colleges want to hear from them.

3.  Organization. Help students keep track of all deadlines for college applications, supplements, and scholarships and provide a timeline to get each of these done. Provide the organization that is essential to the college application process.

4.  Applications. Proofread all applications and essays to make sure they are free of spelling and grammar mistakes.  Sloppy applications and essays can land students in the reject pile.

5.  Financial aid and Scholarships. Advise students on financial aid and applying for scholarships and help them to find ways to cut college costs.  Suggest schools to add to their college list that are known be more generous in their financial aid.

6.  Test Preparation. Discuss the SAT and ACT, subject tests and test prep, and which dates are best to take these tests.  Talk about the differences in the tests and what colleges require.  Some educational consultants offer test prep or you can suggest other qualified individuals.

7.  Stress and Anxiety. Help relieve the anxiety that is a natural part of the college admission process. It is often a very stressful experience for students.  By feeling that they have things under control, most students find the college admissions process an interesting experience.  This gives them a sense of confidence and allows them to put forth their best effort.

It is unrealistic to expect high school students to navigate the college search,  application and admissions process on their own. Some parents feel they can work objectively and effectively with their own children and that they have the knowledge to do so.  Some high school counselors are able to provide the individual attention and time, but most simply have too many students to advise and have limited time for college counseling.  Some families turn to educational consultants who specialize in helping students with the college search andapplication process. Their services are affordable and can be a wise investment for parents.

Students need someone to answer their questions and keep the process moving.  They need support and encouragement to discover what they want in a college experience. This will help them become stronger college applicants and enable them to make informed college decisions.  As a family, you need to decide what works best for you and your college-bound student.  Whoever you choose, the goal should be to make applying to college and college admissions a little less stressful and no more complicated than it already is.

Medical School Admissions Are Now As Easy As Never Before

The lure of becoming a doctor or medical professional has led millions of students to pursue a medical course. But the hurdles are enormous through the way of admission. Apart from just typical documentation process to interview preparation, students need extra help secure a seat in a medical school or college. Getting admission in a medical school is the first step towards a promising career. The throat-cutting competition has left no field uncovered, making it difficult for the students to stay ahead of their competitors. Medical field is also no exception. There are however a number of schools in every town and city that offer various medical courses, but choosing the best by no means is a decision you can make in a day. Moreover, school location, fee structure and the facilities provided by the school are some other things students have to consider before choosing a medical school.

Getting into a renowned medical school requires much more than just being eligible for a medical course and filling the application form. Instead, you need to stay in touch with a reliable admission consultant to enhance your application and prepare for entrance test and mock medical school interview. It can prove to be an intensive time-efficient solution to your medical school admission. However the admission process is quite difficult, but admissionconsultants are out there to ease the entire process. These consultants also give you detailed information about various medical schools and courses, helping you find the best to suit your budget and meet your requirements.

After schooling, the biggest hurdle for most students is to choose the right course. However options are countless, but choosing the best course to match your profile makes a huge difference on the career prospect. If you are willing to pursue a medical course, here’s how you can get admission in the desired school. Online medical consultants offer comprehensive consulting services, helping you choose the right course and school, enhance your application and make the entire admission process a lot easier. Helped by the consultant, you will be able to find the best school and compete others. With competition raising high in the medical field, students find it difficult to get into a medical school. They have to go through a long admission process, which includes choosing the best college, applying for the right course, appearing in the entrance test and preparing for the interview. Doing this all also don’t necessarily guarantee your medical school admission.

Want To Apply To A Foreign Medical School? Read This Before You Do

“A career is not just about earning an income. It is about pursuing the essence of your life.” – Terry Mante Future cannot be predicted. One can never really tell what’s in store in the coming time. But, what if one has to make some serious lifelong commitments? With such uncertainty about the future, it is not that easy to take life-changing decisions, especially related to the career.

One has to invest a lot of time and efforts in making the ultimate choice. As choosing a career field is an immutable decision, it is important to emphasize each and every aspect with utmost precision. We all know that selecting the best career field is a decision that cannot be made in one day. So, make sure that you think a lot about the career choice you are going to make and that too, from every facet in immense detail. Are you thinking of making a career in the medical field? If so, you have made a choice that will demand sincere dedication and the best of your efforts. Entering into the medical line is not that simple in the first place.

You have to apply to the best medical schools (as per your preference) and give your 100% in order to get selected and fulfill your absolute dream. It may seem like a cake-walk, but it is not so because the challenge starts at the very beginning when one has to choose a medical school. If exploring another culture is your reason to apply to a foreign medical school, don’t forget that there are other things you need to consider as well. In case you have made up your mind to attend a foreign school, prepare yourself for a lot of changes. Be it amenities, politics or weather, the change will be unavoidable for sure. As far as the grading system is concerned, it can vary too.

Getting trained abroad can be both a constraint as well as a challenge. So, make sure you prepare yourself for everything. Whether it is your priority or abackup plan to attend a medical school, do not forget that you will have to put extra efforts in making the supreme decision. Visit online forums and websites that provide detailed information about the best foreign medical schools for American. You will definitely get immense help which will, in turn, guide you to make one of the most significant decisions of your life. All the best!

Best International Schools in Bangalore

Bangalore is fast becoming a multi-racial, multi-cultural society and hence there is always an increasing demand for International Schools. Being truly international is determined by the curriculum followed, making it easier for children to adapt as parents shuttle between countries. Many international schools in Bangalore follow International programs likeInternational Baccalaureate (IB), International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) and other American Curriculum. Many international schools in Bangalore feel that IB Diploma program is an entry card for placements to good professional colleges overseas.

According to many parents and teachers, International School curriculums integrate several methods largely US, UK and Canadian based. International Schools emphasize on extracurricular activities, good facilities, low teacher-student ratio, practical-based learning and balance between study and play. Many parents in Bangalore believe that the deciding factor should never be international tags, fancy brochures, attractive campus and glamorous talks. Bangalore has a privilege to be a host to many top International Schools of the country according to many parents and academicians.

A list of best International Schools in Bangalore includes the countries top like American Friendship Residential School, Akash International School, Bangalore International School, BGS International School, Buddhi School, Canadian International School, Dayananda SagarInternational School, Deccan International School, Ebenezer International School, FreedomInternational School, Gitanjali International School, Greenwood High School, Gear InnovativeInternational School, Gopalan International School, India International School, IndusInternational School, International Academy For Creative Teaching, Inventure Academy, JainInternational Residential School, Mallya Aditi International School, Mission10x Wipro Ltd, Oasis International School, Prakriya Green Wisdom School, Primus Public School, Royale Concorde International School, Ryan Global School, Sarala Birla Academy, S G InternationalSchool, South East Asian International School, Sri Devaraj Urs Internatonal Residential School, SSB International School, Swaminarayan International School, Stonehill InternationalSchool, The International School Bangalore (TISB), TREAMIS World School, Trio World School, Vibgyor High- Bangalore, Venkat International Public School and Vidyashilp Academy.

The Canadian International School follows a Canadian International curriculum and has teachers from Canada and US, it also conducts a Montessori method for the kinder-garden section. The higher classes follow an Ontario Secondary School Program. The student body in this school is a mix and match of kids from various nationalities like Canada, Singapore, China, UK, France, Taiwan, Japan etc. Some good international schools like TRIO World School, Bangalore International School, The International School- Bangalore, National Academy for Learning International Schools, Mallya Aditi International School and EbenezerInternational School follow the IGCSE International programs from pre-kinder-garden to grade 5 to grade 12. In most of these schools the child needs to complete 3 years of age by August when the session begins. Grades 9 and 10 follow the IGCSE program from Cambridge International University and 11 and 12 graders study another program the IB Diploma. Most of the schools mentioned above have both day scholars and residential boarders.

Some good international schools following the IB curriculum include Stonehill International School, Canadian International School- Bangalore, IndusInternational School, The International SchoolBangalore, Sarala Birla Academy and TREAMIS World School. Extracurricular activities in schoolsinclude swimming, squash, billiards, golf, horse riding, tennis, scrabble, dance, theatrics and in someschools even web design. Those children with good 10th standard grades and consistent academic record can do an IB Diploma.

Sessions of most International Schools in Bangalore start in August and admissions tointernational schools is open throughout the year.

Indus International School near Sarjapur, Bangalore offers IB, Primary Year’s Program up to Grade 5 and Cambridge Examination for Grades 9 and 10. They also offer IB Diploma program for grades 11 and 12. The campus is around 40 acres, spacious with mini stadium for track and field sports too. Inventure Academy follows both Indian School Certificate Examination (ICSE) and IGCSE, which makes it popular among parents and students. Thisinternational school has tennis and basketball courts, cricket pitch, football and hockey grounds. Many International Schools adhere to a maximum of about 30 kids per class to ensure proper attention and guidance to every child.

Another fairly new International School with good campus and facilities is TREAMIS World School near Electronic City. Students here have an opportunity to choose from either Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) or IGCSE curriculum. They have a huge size swimming pool with patient instructors. Another school one could consider checking isBangalore International School which started way back in 1969 and is truly ‘international’. Kids here follow the Cambridge International Primary Program and IGCSE and the school is known for its academics and extracurricular engagements. They also have a hostel facility, which is off campus; though authorities claim it’s well supervised.

If looking for best International schools in Bangalore, you need to visit and start the process by October or November. In most of the above schools, admission to Grade 6 and above is after a written test. For lower grades the schools usually meet the parents and child and decide. Keep the reports and recommendations from the child’s previous school/playschools the child has attended at hand.

This article has been written by Amitava Sen Working for, one of the trusted sources for information about International schools in Bangalore.

International School and their Underlying Features

International Schools are successful to be the hype in current times. Parents are now inclined to spend more in the cost of international education. The quality of education in these schools ensures a global standard of learning and prepares the student for any course in international institutions. International schools are mushrooming side-by-side traditional schools. However, how will the parents know if a school is actually international? A number of features make a school international that helps parents to distinguish between general schools and global schools.

The International Association of School Librarianship in 2009 outlined a number of criteria for International school. The 8 major features of global schools according to the association are: Transferability of students across other international schools, moving population, multinational and multilingual student body, follows international curriculum such as International Baccalaureate, international accreditation such as CIS, IBO, North Eastern ASC, Western Association of Schools and colleges, and teachers from various nations.International schools are bound to fulfill these set of criteria.

A UK based organization, ISC Research, has analyzed the growth of International schoolsacross the globe. According to their reports, there are more than 2.8 million students enrolled in international schools in 2011. The burgeoning number of global schools is a pertinent feature. These schools have been through a rapid growth with their numbers doubling across the countries. There are thousands of world schools throughout the globe and more are being added up rapidly. The market of international K-12 education reached about $27 billion a year at 2011. The sector is employing over 270,000 professionals comprising of teachers and admin persons. The growth of global schools in Asia is substantial. In 2011, 238 new schools were added in different countries of the continent. The international Diaspora in countries such as China, India and other fast developing countries has been the primary reason for growth of international schools in these nations.

The education system in international schools is the foremost identity that defines them. International schools many vary in size, capacity and even the schooling system. A variety of course curriculum and education formats may be followed by different world schools. The extent of international traits of education varies from schools to schools. The most important feature of a global school is that it follows the course curriculum of another country or an international system, which is different from the host country. The emphasis on global citizenship and international education programs makes these institutions to stand apart from their national counterparts.

Education Finance and Economics

Education Finance and Economics


Education is a very essential aspect and should be provided to all students in a country equally. In this respect governments should take initiatives of financing education in order to allow students from poor background to be able to access  education. For instance, in the United States of America education is primarily under the responsibility of state and local government. This topic is of great importance as it analyzes the historical and theoretical foundations of funding education. Evaluation of sources of revenues and their influence on educational results is also addressed in this study. Some light shed to educational institutions, local, and state government in matters  relating to education in a global perspective. More light is shed on the determination of capital and general expenditures of educational institutions and an analysis of the role of ethics in the process of making the financial decisions for educational institutions.

Additionally, the aspect of how government and educational institutions make budget and manage it in order to help in adequately financing education is of great importance. Finances for supporting education come from different avenues which include grants and other financial aids from different sources (Xuedong, 2008, p. 52). In this case, this study will address these sources and indicate how they impact the aspect of education. In the current world and economy, expenditures of parents towards their children is reported to increase drastically as a result of the increasing cost of education. Because of economic conditions of different countries all over the world, it has become very difficult for parents and students to finance their children’s or their education respectively (Alan, 2010, p. 52). This calls for economic policies that are implemented by governments in ensuring that all citizens are equally provided with education. Economic policies ensure that there is a portion of the governments spending on public that is allocated for education financing.

Historical perspective of financing education

A number of changes have occurred in the education systems of many countries in the whole world, as indicated by Alan Haskvitz (2010), particularly in matters relating to financing education (p.58). Most striking aspect has been the sharp drop in the public share of funding higher education and the recent interest in financing based on institutional performance. This has resulted in educational institutions particularly higher education to raise their tuition fees, cut costs by outsourcing services to external providers, and aggressively seek private finances. This has impacted the way these educational institutions provide equality of opportunities when  enrolling. Despite the fact that the state government funds education in many countries of the world, there are some people who study in private schools and hence they provide their own funding. This shows that the rationale of state funding is to equalize the whole process in the pursuit of making sure that students from all social classes are in a position to assess education (Allan et al, 2009, p.538).

Back in the year 1789, Thomas Jefferson was for the idea of free public education that was deemed imperative for the new democracy to grow and thrive. Despite the fact that Jefferson pushed very hard for free public education, he never witnessed government-funded public education during his time. According to Alyson (2011, p.17), there is need for government budgeting for public education in order to bring about equality in school enrolment. This is because some educational institutions particularly the higher education discriminate upon the poor students as they are unable to pay for their tuition fees adequately (Arnove & Torres, 2007, p.384).

In general terms, education systems have undergone a number of changes right from the roles played by tutors, students, parents, governments, educational institutions, and other sources of educational finance. These changes have occurred through a long period of time and what can be seen in the present is totally different from what was there in the past. As indicated by Azad and Chandra (2008), in the past education was heavily financed by parents and students and no one could have thought that education would be financed by other financial aids (p.33). During this period of time, the cost of education was relatively low and hence many people were able to afford it. In the current world and economic conditions, educational financing has become very difficult bearing in mind that many people are enrolled in educational institutions and hence there is a need of increasing the number of tutors. It should be noted that, as put forward by Bayefsky and Waldman (2007, p.523), the advancement in technology that is experienced in the current world has attracted many people to join educational institutions in order to further education and other to start education. In the United States of America for instance, more than 75% of the total population are educated meaning that this country has developed heavily in terms of education (Brossard & Borel, 2008, p.23). In most of the developed countries like     Australia, Japan, United Kingdom, France, and Germany among others; people are increasingly acquiring education and hence there are a lot of students in public and private educational institutions hence calling for increased number of tutors.

According to Boadway and Shah (2007), in the traditional days most people were not educated and hence the government was able to pay for the few people’s educational expenditures in most countries (p.41). This implies that the cost of education in the traditional days was not high. In the current world, a lot of people are acquiring education through public, private, and e-learning means and hence there is need for technological advancement and other facilities to aid education and hence making the cost of education to be very high. As a result of this many governments are usually not able to afford to finance education for their citizens and hence parents and students are supposed to finance their education. Taking an example of financing education in Canada, it is clearly indicated that universities in this country finance education through sale of goods and services, investments, and fund raising (Cancian & Danziger, 2006, p.320). This is one of the ways that was used in funding education in most of the   American countries. Traditionally, many governments had absolute role of financing education and hence many people were able to attain even higher education through the financial aids that were provided by governments. In the current world, as revealed by Brux (2007, p.107), a good number of bright students in developing and less developed countries are unable to join higher education because of lack of financial assistance from governments. This has resulted to low  levels of education in these countries (Checchi, 2006, p.260).

There is an attempt to finance education for students according to their performances in many different schools. This aspect has been heavily criticized by many people especially the proponents of equality in educational financing (Chriatopher & Robert, 2010, p.189). It should be noted that even in the traditional days, education was provided by private and public educational institutions and hence parents used to take their children to any of the two aspects depending on their levels of wealth. According to Cohen et al., (2007, p.13), education was traditionally financed by local governments where localities used to handle all financing for the schools in their communities. The source of revenue was from property tax. In this respect, schools relied on the properties owned by each community. This method of education funding had shortcomings in that students transferring from one school to another particularly within different communities were considered as out of place (Cordes et al., 2005, p.100). This is because community properties were only used in funding education of students who come from that community. In this respect, students were indirectly forced to study in schools within their community if at all their education was to be financed by community properties (Craford, 2005, p.32).

After the World War II, different countries took the responsibilities of financing education for their citizens through a number of plans so that all students’ education was financed equally. This method was viewed by many people as the right path to excel in education since students studying in private and public schools were equalized in terms of educational funding (Dahlman et al., 2007, p.95). In the present situation of education financing, governments are almost contributing up to 50% while the rest is provided by parents, students, organizations, financial institutions, or even non governmental organizations. This present aspect has been viewed by many parents and students as discriminating as those people who are not able to finance for their education are forced to drop out (Dauchy, 2007, p.34). The aspect of the governments contributing up to 50% of education funding has resulted to low qualities of education as tutors are not adequately motivated to impart educational skills to their students while students from poor backgrounds are in most cases sent home because of finances. This, as indicated by Dustmann et al (2008, p.230), has contributed to the increased private education hence students in private schools perform better as compared to those in public schools.The reason given for this aspect is that in private schools there are technologically advanced facilities and well trained tutors hence students are able to learn both theoretical perspectives and practical ones. In the developing countries in particular, it has become very hard to equate the quality of education in private and public schools since the modes of learning and teaching are totally     different (Elizabeth et al, 2010, p.31).

Presently, the most common mechanism of education financing is known as Foundation Program which was introduced in the year 1920. According to this program, the local and state funds are combined in order to provide a level of funding that is adequate for financing education for all people (Fleet, 2010, p.243). Most countries of the world use this method where education is funded by state and local governments’ financial aids. In order to equalize the process of education funding to all communities, this program provides that the poorer communities are  entitled to a bigger share for the state and local government’s money as compared to richer communities (Goldin & Katz, 2008). This is done in order to make sure all communities are eligible for the money and all students from all communities benefit from these money. It should be noted that this method also includes the calculations that are incapacitated in meeting the requirements and needs of students requiring special education. In most countries of the world, students with special education are usually financed by the government especially if their parents are unable to fund their education (Gruescu, 2007, p.67).

According to Guarino (2009), apart from the funding that is provided by governments in the present situations, there are other sources of education financing (p.16). The World Bank is supporting many countries’ education with an aim of making sure that all students are provided with adequate education equally. It has come to the knowledge of many people that education is one way that changes the economic conditions of a country. This is so because when people are heavily learned in a country that country does not necessarily look for expatriates from other countries (Hanushek & Welch, 2006, p.96). Taking examples of the industrialized and developed countries in the whole world, it is clear that the level of education in these countries is very high as more than 80% of the total populations are educated.  As a result of this, the World Bank and other financial institutions are heavily funding education sector especially in the developing and less developed countries (Honig, 2006, p.273).

Many governments usually give grants to students in order to enable them pay their   education. In this case flat grants are offered where the available state funds are divided either by the number of students or teachers in a country in order to give a unit figure and then give out the appropriate figure to each school in that country (Horner, 2007). This method is very helpful as it assists in financing education in a country in accordance to the number of teachers or students in that country. Many students especially in the United States of America, United Kingdom, Australia, China, and Japan have benefited heavily from this program (Hyman, 2007). The rationale that education is a responsibility of a government is mostly used by many governments to fiancé education. In this case, when governments are making annual budgets for the public spending, education financing is included in order to make sure that all students are provided with adequate education. In most countries of the world, the aspect of education is compulsory to all students and hence since there are some families that are very poor to the extent that they are unable to finance education for their children; it becomes the responsibility of the governments to finance their education (Imber & Geel, 2009 p.343).

                                   Expenditures and the increasing cost of education

The public expenditures are increasing at a very high rate in the current world resulting from the constant changes in economic conditions. Despite the fact that economic conditions in the whole world are deteriorating, many parents and students are increasingly spending a lot of money in financing education especially higher and special education. According to Lawrence (2008,  p.56), parents are spending a lot of money during the educational life time of their children and it may seem that in the near future many people will not be in a position to afford education especially those people from the lower social class. It is widely known that when economic conditions of a country deteriorate, people usually change the way they spent their money in order to try and save. This is not the case in matters relating to education since education is becoming a basic need and all people are striving to have it (Lin & Pleskovic, 2008, p. 30). According to the reports that are provided by non governmental organizations and World Bank, many people in developing countries are living below one dollar and they are expected to pay educational expenditures for their children. This is very difficult and unless something is done to solve this problem, people will not be able to afford quality education in the near future (Lioyd, 2005, p.101).

The rising cost of education is compounded by the fact that the associated expenditures of education are very many and too much for governments, parents, and students to bear. These  expenditures include; operational human resources, operational learning, investment infrastructure and maintenance of the aspect of free education by governments, management costs, and assistance costs like bursaries and grants (Lipphardt, 2008, p.30). Globally, higher education is facing a lot of problems where universities are underfunded, there is increasing worries about compromising quality of education, there is inadequate student support in terms of bursaries and grants, the amount of students from disadvantaged backgrounds is very small, and the aspect of financing education is regressive (Lou & Wang, 2008, p.143). This indicates that probability of having unstable education in the whole world is very high bearing in mind that the poor will be the most adversely affected. The proportion of students from disadvantaged backgrounds in    institutions of higher education is very small as a result of the fact that they are unable to finance their own education despite the fact that they are bright and talented (Martin, 2005, p.221). A good example can be traced in the United States of America when state spending for higher  education dropped and the tuition that was required rose significantly making many people unable to afford this education. It is believed by many people that college education or rather higher education is an investment that pays off. This has resulted in many people willing to study up to colleges but their dreams are usually put off by the fact that higher education in the whole world is increasingly becoming unaffordable (Martinson, 2008, p.56). This increased cost of education has called for financial aids from different sources in order to help governments, parents, and students in paying tuition fees and other required fees.

The Principles and Theories of Economics of Education

The main role of economists in education mostly relates to the labor market and the utilization of money. In financing education economic theories and principles like cost benefit    analysis need to be addressed. In cost- benefit- analysis, the main agenda is analyzing the cost of financing education and the benefits this education offers to the general public. This principle is used in determining whether the policy of funding education is worth or not. This is simple, if the benefits of a program are higher as compared to the costs; the program is worthwhile (Martinson, 2008, p.56).

The second aspect is efficiency which involves getting the maximum out of the valuable resources available. In this respect, efficiency is obtained if maximum outputs are obtained from the same inputs. This implies that the efforts that are put in financing education should be reflected on the outcomes of this education. Efficiency is an aspect where resources are distributed with an aim of giving productive results (Robert, 2010).

             The Role of Federal, Regional, and Local state governments in financing education

The role of financing education is mostly played by state, federal, and state governments. These roles usually differ with the level of education. In most cases, regional and local governments in almost all countries of the world finance low levels of education like pre-primary and primary education. On the other hand, tertiary and higher educational levels are financed by central or state government. Government usually takes the responsibility of financing public education to a larger extent as opposed to private schools (Dougherty, 2004). Before the current economic down turn in the whole world, governments used to provide more than 70% of the   total expenditures in education institutions. The concept of inter-governmental funds transfer happens when governments support their citizens studying abroad.

                                 Financial Organization

This denotes an organization that collects money from other institutions or the general public and invests them in financial assets. In this case, this may provide a good source of funds for education in any one country they are found (Robert, 2010). Additionally, this aspect may mean the collect way to organize finances that are provided to support education in order to    accomplish their goal. Naidu, Joubert, Mestry, Mosoge and Ngcobo(2008), describe all organizations need to have a structure that shows how management functions are carried out. It therefore makes sense that a governing body, which is responsible for the management of school funds, sets up a financial committee. In the creation of an organizational structure for school    financial management the requirements of school act must adhered to (p.171).

                                       Financial Control Strategy

Financial management is the performance of management actions (regulatory tasks)  connected to the finance of schools or educational organizations with the main aim achieving effective education. These activities comprise of part of the individuals in official positions of authority. Financial management is an integral aspect of resource management. It ensures that expenditure is well-directed towards achieving good value for money involving appropriate acquisition and allocation of physical resources. Other activities that help achieve this include the use of budgets, planning and resource control (Levacic, 1989, p.7). Financial mismanagement can be reduced if a policy is drawn up to set out the regulations, practices and procedures necessary for the prevention of fraud (Knight, 1993, p. 150). Financial  control is concerned with money as it flows into the school financial resources (such as cash) held by the organization, and money flowing out in the form of salaries and expenses. Each of the categories of financial resources is controlled so that revenues are sufficient to cover expenses.  Berkhout and Berkhout (1992) noted the following specific functions be performed for control purposes:

  • Comparison between the amounts of budgeted and the result achieved
  • Analysis and interpretation of discrepancies
  • Audit and calculation
  • Accounting and reporting
  • Implementation of corrective measures.

Income and expenditure must be monitored and controlled. Monitoring is the process of comparing actual income and expenditure against budgeted income and expenditure. Whilst   control safeguards funds and ensures that they are spent as authorized (Watkins, 1989:86; Knight, 1993: 147). The roles and responsibilities of individuals within the school need to be spelled out and information should be reported regularly (cf. Naidu, Joubert, Mestry, Mosoge and Ngcobo, 2008: 176).

In order to make sure that all finances that are provided are used for the intended purposes, it is very essential to come up with a strategy top control utilization of finances. In this case, finances meant for educational support should not be used in other ways. This calls for the correct appropriation of funds in order to avoid operating at a loss (International Monetary Fund , 2006).

Financial Accounting and Reporting

Financial accounting and reporting are also forms of control (Naidu, Joubert, Mestry, Mosoge and Ngcobo, 2008, p.179). In order to make sure that representatives of educational finance are accountable and responsible for all the money provided to particular schools, the   aspect of financial accounting and reporting is very imperative. All the money that has been used in educational institutions is recorded and reported as a way of showing transparency. This prevents mismanagement of funds and brings about appropriate utilization of finances (Dougherty, 2004).

Financial Policy in Education

Different countries of the world have different financial policies but all of them are       directed to assist in the improvement of education and financing education. Different parties    especially those involved in matters related to finances in education sector are guided by these policies. As noted by Naidu, Joubert, Mestry, Mosoge and Ngcobo (2008), the financial policy serves to guide the financial administration of the school. It assists with financial control, regulation of receipt-keeping and withdrawal and expenditure of funds. It is an important financial management tool, clearly outlining how funds and (including school fees, donations, other generated funds and government grants) are to be managed at a specific school (p.173).  Additionally, the process of government funding education and the portion by which a  government should contribute is provided by this policy.

Sources of revenue and their influence of education outcome

Equity in education funding is generally defined as the aspect of equal per student expenditure in all school districts. Differences in expenditures among different school districts are typically brought about by a function of local tax rates and revenues. According to International Monetary Fund (2006, p. 59), it is very interesting, inspiring, rewarding, and exciting experience when studying in most of the developed countries but it may be very difficult to fund ones education. The concept of the state government partly paying education has resulted in parents and students paying a higher proportion of the cost of education as compared to other countries (John, 2006, p.36). Among the groups that are adversely affected by the increasing cost of  education are the international students as they are not covered by any government grant. It would be cheap if the local government at district level was in charge of funding education as they are far much aware of the conditions of students in these schools. This is so because, as stated by Dougherty (2004), the local community is aware of the earning levels of parents in a certain district and hence they are better positioned in determining how these schools should be funded (Jones, 2007, p.36).

According to Joseph (2010, p.206), education is very essential in all countries of the world and hence it should be supported heavily by all avenues of revenues. In the less developed countries, it is very hard for the government to fully finance education and hence other financial aids are called upon to help in this matter. It is the responsibility of many governments all over the world to ensure that their citizens are adequately educated in order to contribute to the development and growth of economy and hence there are different means that are sought to finance education. It is of great importance to note that developed countries like European countries are able to finance education for their citizens either directly or indirectly. This aspect has increased the need to many people from other parts on the world to enroll in education programs of these countries through the e-learning programs.

It has been reported by Kerzner (2009, p.45) that, the cost of education all over the world has increased drastically and it has become a fact that most of the poor people have to rely on fundraising in order to be able to fund their education. Governments are unable to fully finance education because of the increased costs of education and this has left people to manage and pay for their education. In order to have a full, adequate, and high quality education in the whole world, it is of great importance to address the following aspects; budget management, grants,  financial aids from different sources, expenditures and the rising cost of education, and the    economic policy that are implemented in order to aid education financing.

a)      Budget management

The aspect of budget management implies that the money that is allocated for a particular purpose is well appropriated and utilized in the defined purpose. It should be noted that in some countries schools are very corrupt and hence the money that is allocated for financing education in these schools are used in other activities that are not the intended ones (Lawrence, 2008). In order to make sure that all students are well provided with adequate education it is the role of representatives of different schools to ensure that the amount of money allocated for different schools are well utilized. This is only brought about if people will become accountable for the money allocated for their schools are become very responsible in spending them (King, 2008, p.103).

Everard, Morris and Wilson (2004, p.210) explain that investment can either take the form of developing or maintaining existing resources or acquiring new resources. The question is: how do we invest limited financial resources so as to maximize the benefit to the school? This question is especially pertinent to disadvantaged schools, where the money provided hardly   covers year-to-year financial and resources needs. For this reason school governing bodies are subjected to difficult choices in relation to resources. The appropriateness of decisions by governing bodies in this regard depends on how well these bodies are informed and skilled in resource management (cf. Naidu, Joubert, Mestry, Mosoge and Ngcobo, 2008:164)

According to Xuedong (2008, p.56)), in China the government has initiated the aspect of compulsory education in the rural areas of China and hence in the budget there are some amounts of money that are appropriated for financing rural education. This implies that governments are in the front line in financing education by setting aside some parts of the public money for education (Lin & Pleskovic, 2008, p.30). It should be noted that as a result of the deteriorating economic conditions in the whole world, educational sector is not provided with much money from the government as most governments only provide 50% of the total educational financing. This shows that the money provided should be well managed and used according to the set   budget.

It has been indicated by Lioyd (2005, p.101) that, the formula funding method that is used by some countries in education funding results from the budget that is made by governments in supporting education. As indicated earlier, in the past education financing was a full responsibility of the governments where the governments made budgets on the appropriate amount of money that should be appropriated to educational sector. In the current world, this budgetary appropriation has reduced and hence the little money issued should be well utilized (Lipphardt, 2008, p.30). In most cases, since most of the money used in education financing comes from governments’ budget management, accountability and responsibility is required in order to have adequacy and equality in education funding. On the other hand, there are portions that are appropriated by many governments in order to help students undertaking higher educational programs. This money is paid back once a beneficiary is employed.

b)     Grants

In most countries, students are provided with grants and bursaries depending on their   situations and the course they are undertaking. Grants are provided by governments in order to help students that are unable to pay for their tuition fees (Martin, 2005, p. 221). The difference between grants and budget management is that grants are provided and given to particular students who are considered needy while budgetary finances are provided direct to educational institutions in order to help in purchasing facilities and equipments that are used in the process of schooling. According to Lou (2008, p. 143), students in public schools in China are provided with governments grants in order to be able to manage paying their school fees. This is a process which is considered very useful sine grants are not necessarily paid back. Bursaries are similar to grants as they serve the same purpose but the only difference is that they are issued to people pursuing particular courses or careers (Martinson, 2008, p.56).

Financing education as a concept has undergone an underlying structural change from the former centralized system which had narrow revenue source to a decentralized system that is heavily diversified in terms of revenue base (Nicholas, 2009, p.205). Due to the fact that most countries have compulsory education especially for primary education, governments provide grants to enable all people be able to advance their education to the secondary and tertiary level (Megumi, 2008, p.7). The aspect of globalization and advancement in technology has resulted in many students from all over the world going for abroad education or e-learning. In order to support this aspect of education, governments are issuing intergovernmental grants.

According to Nikos (2010, p. 41), intergovernmental grants are usually based on a number of interconnected choices which include; the national government decides whether to provide grants for its students studying abroad, the national government determines the conditions under which these grants should be issued, the sub-national government makes decisions on whether to accepts the issued grants, and the sub-national government determines policies which include the spending levels on the received grants. This implies that, there must be an agreement between the national and sub-national governments on whether to provide or receive grants respectively (Norman et al., 2011, p.233). Through grants students are able to acquire education from foreign countries and hence increase the resource base of their countries.

c)      Financial aids from different sources

It has been noted by OECD Indicators (2008, p. 37) that, the cost of education in many countries is increasing at a very high rate and hence there is a need for education financing to be assisted by different financial aids. In this respect, sources like International Monetary Funds and World Bank are playing a very significant role in supporting education in different countries  especially the developing and less developed countries. A good example that is provided by International Monetary Fund (2006, p.59) is Rwanda which is receiving a lot of financial support from International Monetary Funds in order to support its education. Most of the African countries are heavily supported by international monetary institutions in order to finance their education. These sources are viewed by many people as good ways of enhancing education through providing adequate and equitable education. In most cases, as noted by John (2006, p. 36), research institutions and higher learning are provided with financial support from international monetary institutions in the pursuit of improving and enhancing research and higher education especially in developing and less developed countries.

World Bank has invested a lot of money in financing education in Africa and hence many students have benefited heavily from these investments. According to Jones (2007), it is the    responsibility of the World Bank to ensure that the borrowed funds that are intended to finance education in different countries reach to the intended beneficiaries. This is because some people are very corrupt and may end up using this money for other purposes. It should be noted that the funds that are provided by the World Bank are paid back and hence they should be used appropriately in order to meet the intended purposes (p 36).

In most cases, International Monetary Funds support higher education in order to eliminate the perspective that only the elites are eligible to education particularly in developing and less developed countries. The aspect of globalization is taking the concept of education financing up to the global level and international monetary institutions are taking the front line in assisting the poor to get accessibility of education (King, 2008, p.103). A pint worth noting is that education is increasingly becoming under funded and hence it becomes very costly to be  afforded by the poor (Joseph, 2010, p.213). This has been the main course of action of the international monetary institutions like the World Bank and the International Monetary Funds (IMF).

d)     Economic policy and Education finance

Economic policy is not a direct source of revenue for financing education since it does not involve collecting money but involves appropriate use of public money. From a general perspective, economic policy is the actions that are undertaken by governments in the economic field. These actions involve systems of setting government budget, labor market, national ownership, and interest rates among other areas of government intervention in the economy. Megumi (2008, p. 13) notes that economic policies are usually influenced by global institutions like the World Bank, International Monetary Funds (IMF) and political issues and beliefs. In education financing perspective, economic policy many be implemented by governments in    order to regulate the average spending of students especially higher education students provided with grants and financial assistance by the government. According to Nicholas (2009, p.207), most students spend a lot of money in unnecessary extravagant lifestyles in institutions of higher learning hence increasing government spending in this type of education. In this case, this spending may be reduced by the government in order to make sure that students are spending the right amount of money that is proportional to an average life of an ordinary higher education  student (Nikos, 2010, p. 233).

On the other hand, economic policy involves the attempts made by a government to stimulate economy out of recession. As indicated earlier, the increased cost of education has resulted from the recession that is facing many countries in the world. In this respect, many governments are not able to management their budgets and allocate money to educational sector. Norman et al., (2011, p.229) note that economic policies are used in redeveloping economic  conditions of a country in order to be able to finance education. This is done through taxation and tax policy where a government may decide to tax higher its citizens in order to afford financing its education (Phillippe & Sullivan, 2006, p.127).

It should be noted that according to Keynesian theory of economics, government spending and taxes are guided to redevelop the economy of a country. The other aspect is monetary policy which controls the value of a currency in a country by usually lowering the supply of money in order to control inflation and raising it so that the country’s economy may be stimulated. OECD Indicators (2008) reveal that, inflation rates of a country directly impact the accessibility of education and average educational related expenditures (p.37). In this respect, in countries where inflation rates are very high students, parents, and governments usually spend a lot of money in financing education. It is therefore the role of the government to make sure that the amount of money in circulation is heavily controlled in order to stimulate economy and prevent increase in the rates of inflation (John, 2006, p.33).

                                   Challenges facing the concept of financing education

The concept of funding public schools has been challenged heavily in the courts throughout the past 40 years. In this case, the main issue is how equal funding of public education is  carried out in the process of providing equal education to all students (Richard, 2010, p. 153). These adequacy issues are centered to the academic standards and assessments. This is because some public schools are funded on the basis of how students perform at school. Poor students may  perform lower than affluent ones because they do not have adequate learning resources(Robert, 2010, 47).

It is becoming very hard for governments, parents, and students to finance education and hence other financial aids are called up on to assists. As a result of this the field of education is becoming very competitive and for the elites only who are able to afford paying tuition fees  (Roberts, 2010, p.209). The aspect of many sources of revenues coming together to fund education is somehow welcomed with a number of challenges. These challenges are typically reducing the morale of these financial institutions and governments to provide funds for education (Rye, 2008, p.25).

The aspect of corruption and misappropriation of funds is a challenge that is adversely affecting the concept of financing education. In this respect, some people are not accountable and responsible when using government’s money that is provided to support education (Sidlow & Henschen, 2010, p. 68). In most countries because of lack of accountability and responsibility, the money that is supposed to finance education is being used for personal gains or in other fields that are not the actual intentions. According to Schwartz (2007,), education financing is faced by the problem of misappropriation of funds hence resulting to some people being unable to afford education while in the real sense their education is financed (Smart, 2008, p. 6).

In the current world, human populations have increased and the national economies have reduced. This implies that in most countries population levels are not proportional to economic levels and as a result of technological advancement, many people are increasingly enrolling for higher education. In this case, governments are facing the problem of financing education for huge populations in their countries. In developing countries as indicated by Snider (2010) learning facilities for nursing are very minimal as compared to the number of students taking this course. This indicates that it is becoming increasingly difficult for financial aids to adequately appropriate money for the increasing populations of students (Sykes et al, 2009, p.27).

Developing countries are not like developed countries where almost all people are able to afford education and hence almost all students in developing countries are relying on financial aids from governments and international monetary institutions in financing their education (Theodore, 2010 p. 84). The aspect of individuality is affecting the concept of education financing. In this case, some people feel that they are rich enough to finance education for their children and hence do not require any support from the government or any other source.


In winding up, financing education in the whole world should be reviewed as it has become very costly. It is the wish of many parents to have their children provided with free   public education but many governments do not apportion large amounts of funds for funding public education. The cost of education is increasing in the whole world and hence students are nearly failing to afford education in most countries. It should be noted that when education costs are high, students are not able to study appropriately as they keep on thinking where they will get the money for their education.These thoughts usually affect the performances of students. There are many ways through which education is financed in developed and developing world. These include; government budget management, through grants, financial aids from other revenues like International Monetary Funds and the World Bank, and also through economic policies that are implemented by governments in order to check inflation rates and stimulate economic conditions of a country.



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Special education funding in California is causing deficit in school district budgets

School districts are required by federal law to pay for a large portion of special education programs and services.  These programs and services cannot be altered or cut in any way because it is federally mandated, unlike all other programs for the rest of the students. The short explanation is that federal law mandates it, as set forth in the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act  [20 USC 1400 et seq.].  This law, also called IDEA, enumerates the required needs for students with disabilities.  We all agree that students with special needs must be accommodated, additional care is necessary.  However, most of us do not know the details of the funding and spending on this issue.   In addition to the IDEA federal mandate, the State of California also sets forth special education funding apportionment in its Assembly Bill 602 SELPA [AB 602].If you read these codes on its face and believe that the state and federal government will fund the programs as set forth in the requirements, then you’re not alone.  Must of us assume that this mandated federal and state law will come from separate federal and state funds.  Most people who I asked assumed that special education is funded entirely by federal government disability funds.  It does make sense since it is a federally mandated requirement.  The state and federal statutes require schools to provide “free and appropriate public education” for special education students.   Here is the shocking news, local school districts are responsible for this “free and appropriate public education.”  In fact, IDEA section 1400(c)(6) cites that states and local education agencies are responsible for providing the education for students with disabilities, but that the Federal Government will have a role [emphasis added] in assisting the state and local education agencies.  If you sample a school district’s budget, you will find for example [PVPUSD] it receives $5,049M from the state [AB 602] in addition to the federal IDEA grant which is approximately $2M.  However, the actual costs for the special education programs in this district total approximately $22M.  This district has reported a deficit spending for special education in the sum of $12.5M which is almost double the amount it receives in funding from the federal government and state, combined.  This school district has to find and fund $12.5M in excess of the sum provided by the government funding.  How could special education needs add up to such a colossal amount and cause such a deficit for local school districts? In the code, you will find that required programs such as one-on-one aids are mandatory for each qualifying special needs child. Transportation, specialized at-home care and a host of other services are also required under the law.  I asked the CaliforniaDepartment of Education why local school districts are not receiving more funding for special education requirements.  I asked how the local special education funding from the state is apportioned.  Becky Robinson of the CDE Special Education Department stated that “all funds, federal or state, must be approved by the governor.”  I checked, she is right.  The Budget Act of 2008-2009 AB 1781 (chapter 268) sets forth the budget for special education as determined by the state budget and the governor. At a time when teachers and administrative staff are being laid off en masse, it is difficult to understand why school districts are forced to spend an additional $12.5M on special education program requirements, when state budget cuts are forcing school districts to cut teachers and programs elsewhere.  $12.5M could solve all of the local budget woes and keep the teaching and administrative staff employed for the benefit of the entire school.  The answer is that special education programs are depleting the school districts’ budgets as administrators make cuts to prioritize the federally mandated programs for special education.  Another item for budget in the statute that I should mention, is the special needs education conflict and dispute resolution.  There are law firms that specialize in representing students with disabilities and negotiate the settlement for district’s alleged failure to comply with the established statutes and regulations under the federally mandated IDEA.  This means that the statutes for special education inherently set forth guidelines for legal action following administrative proceedings should a parent identify a violation of their child’s “free and appropriate public education.” Many school districts have greatly suffered from lawsuits brought by parents who claim that their special needs child’s rights were not met under the code.  Case in point, Porter v. Board of Trustees of Manhattan Beach Unified School District et al., 307 F. 3d 1064 (9th Cir. 2002), 537 U.S. 1194, 123 S. Ct. 1303, 154 L. Ed. 2nd 1029 (2003).

In the case of Porter, the parents of a student, who had been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, charged that  Manhattan Beach Unified School District failed to provide their child with a “free appropriate public education.”   This lawsuit resulted in the school district paying over $6.7M to the family of the student.  In addition, as part of the settlement, control of the student’s education was transferred to a Special Master, Ivor Weiner, Ph.D., resulting in the cost of just under $1.1M to pay for the education of the student at the direction of the Special Master.

The problem is that whether or not this school district properly complied with the federally mandated programs and services for this student, the school district was forced to make cuts elsewhere to pay for this legal settlement.   Why has the federal government mandated such broad standards for special education and then leave local school districts to oversee, manage and fund these programs?

Since the subject of budgets and special education is not a topic that people are willing to discuss, reform in this regard is unlikely.  Certainly, special education programs and services are not to blame for this problem.  This problem belongs squarely on the lap of the federal government under the mandated IDEA laws.

History of Education, Teacher Training, Teaching, Teachers

A Concise History of Education of Teachers, of Teacher Training and Teaching

Western history of teacher training, education history, teaching theories, education of teachers, modern history od education, began in early 18th century Germany: teaching seminaries educating teachers were the first formal teacher training in Western history of education and teaching.

(History of education had 2nd century-BC Greek Spartan free public education, Athenian Academy until age 18 and higher Academy and Lyceum; Roman private formal schooling in tiers; China’s 1st century-BC administrator examinations; 1st century Jewish informal Cul’ Tura general education; Islam’s 9th century universities [madrasahs]; 16th century Aztec mandatory teen education; 18th century Russian nation-wide education, Poland’s Education Ministry, Chez ‘teacher of nations’ Comenius’s ‘Didactica Magna’ on universal education [compulsory, certified teachers, tests]; leading later Western history of education –17th century Scotland’s free education, 18th’s Norway’s mandatory literacy and  New Zealand’s standard education, 21st’s Europe’s Bologna process equalising educational qualifications.)

Teacher education and training, first teacher training college in French  history of education and history of teaching, Jean Babtiste de la Salle’s 18th century Brothers of the Christian schools, had non-clerical male teachers teaching poor and middle class children. Based on Greek philosophers’ philosophy of education and teaching, re-introduced by Islam, spirituality was not its only reason, basis of education. Teacher education and training had been clerical –this was Western history of education’s first secular teacher training college.

This philosophy of education changed educational history’s attitude to education. It reformed education, educational theory, learning, enabled further education reforms and educational theories of teaching in history of education. With education reforms in education history, educational theory of teacher education required of teachers an understanding of the human mind and the theory of education, knowledge of sciences and arts, principles and educational methods of teaching. This need in educational history for a teaching method, method of education, necessitated theories of education -in Western history of education educational theories on teacher education interested educators.

These educational philosophies and theories of education on teacher education became the norm in Western history of education, teacher training establishments first Normal Schools in the history of education and training of teachers.

Teacher education progressed educational history: in history of education and history of teaching the system of education required and enabled knowledge, in-service experience, certification for teachers, continuing professional development for teachers in teaching. This non-uniform system of teacher education and training enabled teachers, while teaching, at teacher seminars to refresh and increase their knowledge of theory of education and method of teaching -exchanging ideas among teachers.

Napoleon, in history of education and teacher training,  uniformed professional teaching. Adopting Germany’s teacher seminars, in French history of education and in Western history of education and training of teachers, established the first uniform teacher education system.

Neither the USA’s educational history nor British history of education did in educational philosophies, systems of education, include formal teacher education and training, although Elizabeth-I had introduced teachers’ moral teaching fitness certification in teacher education .

In England’s history of education and teaching, in early 19th century Joseph Lancaster and Andrew Bell founded the Lancastarian teaching method of teacher training: in a monitorial system of teacher education and training senior students (‘monitors’) receiving teaching from tutors were teaching junior students, acting as teachers.

In Scotland’s history of education and teaching, 17th century free education compulsory in late 19th, Germany’s teacher education and training influenced David Stowe’s founding the Glasgow Normal Seminary for teachers.

Progress in teaching and teacher training began with Horace Mann’s Massachusetts Normal Schools in the USA’s educational history, and in Britain’s history of education by the churches’ and voluntary organisations’ teacher training colleges and teaching the colonials.

In philosophies of education arguments followed on teacher education in educational history: should persons of lower English social class attend teacher training colleges and give teaching to children of higher social class!? Might teachers’ teaching not influence young French minds with liberal ideas?!

(Japan’s educational philosophy [perhaps influencing the USA’s educational philosophy, history of education and teaching] emphasised patriotic teacher education and teaching.)

In Europe’s history of teacher education and training, Rosencrantz’s 19th century ‘Philosophy of Education’ emphasised ‘philosophical and psychological data’; this, resembling Islam’s university faculties, developed into separate teaching disciplines.

In Sweden’s history of education and teaching, Pestalozzi furthered the progress of systems of education, advocating formal teacher training colleges.

(Pestalozzi, except theologically, was self-educated, did not leave a written account of teaching and of teacher training colleges; his place in the history of education and teaching is deducible in outline from his various writings, loving sincere deeds, the example he set.)

Germany’s Froebel, and Alexander Bain’s ‘Education as a Science’, favoured education of teachers through teacher training colleges; teacher education adopted what philosophies of education in Western educational history and teaching had lacked -Herbart’s pedagogical emphasis in teaching on five formal steps: preparation, presentation, comparison, generalisation, application.

Germany’s teacher education and training became the basis of developments in the history of education and teacher training; Derwent Coleridge and James Kay Shuttleworth in Britain, Mann in the USA broadly agreed: teacher education and training should emphasise techniques of teaching -“not only the subjects of instructions, but also the method of teaching”.

Jules Ferry laws’ compulsory education established teacher education and training in late 19th century French history of education: teacher education and training, by law, should be through formal teacher training colleges.

English speaking countries’ history of education and teaching, formal teacher education and training, began with the University of Edinburgh’s creating a chair in education, with St. Andrews; in the USA’s history of education, e.g., Henry Bernard, Nicholas Murray Butler, followed.

In Western history of education, England’s progress involved pedagogy and Herbart Sepencer’s teaching techniques in teacher education and training, the USA’s e.g., Francis W. Parker’s, studying Germany’s pedagogical teacher education developments.

In the USA’s history of education and teaching the Darwinian hypothesis (as before later scientific evaluation) influenced John Dewey at the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools; taking into account from other disciplines what were considered relevant in teaching to child development, the religiously affiliated Brown University founded an education department.

(The La Salle College in Philadelphia, had been teaching education.)

New York’s Teachers College, founded 1888, was incorporated into the Columbia University, 1893, establishing its teacher training college, announcing: “The purpose of the Teacher Training College is to afford opportunity, both theoretical and practical, for the training of teachers, of both sexes, for kindergartens and elementary schools and secondary schools, of principals, supervisors, and superintendents of schools, and of specialists in various branches of school work, involving normal schools and colleges” -it became the basis, in Western history of education and teaching, of teacher education and training and Teacher Colleges.

(The USA’s educational history experts’ versions vary on it history of education.) 

In most of British Commonwealth’s history of education and system of teacher training, entry into teacher training came to require senior secondary education at High School level or British Grammar School education with national Matriculation or Ordinary and Advanced General Certificate of Education (GCE) examinations –or equivalent.

In Europe’s history of education and teacher training, education with similar Gymnasium(/Abitur)  or General Lycè e Diploma, or equivalent education, became professional teacher education and training entry qualification.

(In British history of education, until early 20th century, holders of those qualifications, by selection examination, could become temporary teachers. Oxbridge graduates could register ‘master’ and be syndicated teachers. Other universities’ graduates, to become teachers, attended teacher training colleges [if Bachelor of Education, second year teacher training of a teacher training college].)

In British Commonwealth’s history of education greater importance was attached to professionalism in teacher education and training: academic qualifications did not suffice for teaching; teacher examinations required specific periods of specifically professional study in teaching. Professional teaching involved two years’ professional study in teaching and additional in-house teacher training before professional teacher status. Professional teachers could, with another educational year at the teacher training college, specialise in a subject, e.g., geography or history (in farming colonies, e.g., Cyprus where Agriculture became a secondary school examination subject,  with one or two more educational years’ through the Teacher Training College’s Rural Agricultural School). Science graduates without professional teaching training and education qualified for permanent teaching after a year’s classroom teaching experience approved by professionally qualified headmasters, as teachers of their subjects. Teachers were expected to attend teachers’ seminars as continuing professional development.

While professional qualifications are regarded for professional reasons equivalent to doctorates in their counterparts and what qualify for teaching, teacher education and training (school age becoming lower and years less, to enable maturer teachers and teaching), for professional teaching knowledge and skills acquired at teacher training colleges, favoured bachelor degrees with teaching content emphasising skills over theory and, e.g., the USA’s academic ‘first professional degree’ –more for research than professional practice.

(British history of education desired teaching with Post-graduate Certificate in Education [PGCE] -for English state school teaching Qualified Teacher Status [QTS] skills test, and [also if Bachelor of Education] successfully completing an induction year [in Scotland two] in school teaching as Newly Qualified Teacher [NQT], with continuing professional development; alternatively a specific teaching degree or on-the-job teacher training. Teachers trained at Teacher Training Colleges in [former] colonies –and similarly trained teachers with GCSE [grade C] or equivalent in English and Mathematics [for primary school teaching, also Physics] enjoy Qualified Teacher Status.)

(Canada’s provinces or schools certify teachers; Australia requires none for federally funded private schools; France’s is college/bachelor and Teacher Institute [master’s -2010].)

{In the USA’s history of education, until 1960s, one year’s teacher training college education was required for teacher certification. In 1984 an alternate teaching route was introduced: bachelor’s with teaching preparation and within a specified number of years completing a teaching or content based master’s. (Some universities award [with summer study] bachelor degrees in two years, some two bachelor degrees simultaneously [e.g., with two arts and two science majors both BA Philosophy and BS ChE Chemical Engineering]; the  doctoral JD is pre-requisite to master’s LL.M which not all tenured professors need posses.) The ‘Master of Professional Studies’ (MPS) First Professional Degree is academic, not professional. Many states require of teachers, for permanent teaching, examinations in pedagogy and a content area or general knowledge accredited by many private associations’ varying standards; in early 21st century Marlboro-Carolina 20% of teachers had no certification.}

In educational history post general education having been academic for career advancement and scholarly activity or research, or professional for actual practice in the filed, the professional qualification is normally the terminating qualification; in professional teaching, advanced professional degrees enabling specialised teaching, e.g., at universities, are not regarded as part of professional teacher education and training for general education teaching; the USA’s main master’s area is for Ed.D or Ph.D. –research.)

In European history of education, teaching related educational leadership gained importance at the end of 20th century. Desiring the benefits of learnable leadership skills and inherent personal leadership qualities, teachers’ educational leadership skills in teaching leadership are remunerated according to national teacher pay scales.

The USA’s educational leadership teachers’ pay is non-uniform; educational leadership skills standards vary. Graduate educational leadership programs are in, e.g., community issues and educational law. Private Teacher Advancement Programmes (TAP) subscribed by some schools encourage teachers in administrative or teaching development: a teacher prepares an individual growth plan (IGP) with an educational goal or teaching activity, or a cluster group of teachers identify a student learning need, becoming ‘mentor’ or ‘master teacher’/‘teacher of teachers’.

As others’, USA’s teacher training colleges’ comparable teaching qualifications enjoy international regard.

In their history of education, having less aspired to ‘practical’ general education as in the USA and 21st century Britain, most British Commonwealth and European teaching institutions almost uniformly value widely academic general education as culture not acquirable in post general education (e.g., an opposition leader to a Prime Minister [both lawyers] “I as a Grammar School boy” [would not take ‘that’ from him who was not]) and Britain’s suggestion to equate practical skills certificates with general academic qualifications was criticised.

(Early 21st century British educational history saw [university or equivalent  mandatory student grants becoming loans, unemployment necessitating longer and more courses, foreigners scoring higher in English] no increase since late 20th in literacy.)

(In the USA’s history of education, with 20% adult functional illiteracy, as the educationists’ concerns grew, the educationalists considered Europe’s baccalaureate system of education; with growing public interest in education, at the end of 20th century a state appointed three generals to improve the standards of teaching and education and at the beginning of 21st century a general was appointed to federally improve teaching and educational standards.)

In educational history interest in the teaching profession has been based on the status of teachers. Regard for teachers in late 20th century was highest in Russia where teachers enjoyed better employment terms than elsewhere.

(In Britain’s history of education, 1980s’ miss-projection of numbers of teachers needed necessitated engaging science graduates without teaching qualifications as teachers; but a status was enjoyed by teachers of regard as in Europe, and, about the end of 20th century, knighthood for long serving teachers was suggested –due to controversy over peerages it did not materialise. At the beginning of 21st century reducing undergraduate degrees to two years with vocational content was considered, with master’s for teachers -also non-major professional qualifications being above undergraduate degrees in National Vocational Qualifications; but Teachers’ status was regarded to have been equated for economical reasons to classroom assistants’ socially criticised for taking classes without professional teacher education and training.])

In the USA’s history of education, teaching has hailed a form of essentialism in education, with a culture of practicality and model citizenry, emphasising respect for authority (advocated also for 21st century British education); with no general minimum standard in teacher training and education, some states not recognising the teaching qualifications of some others, teachers and teaching appear officially to enjoy no higher regard then Bernard Shaw’s remark (about writers) “Those who can, do; those who can not, teach”.

(In the USA, e.g., some teachers paid only term time having to seek vacation work, teaching and teachers generally are regarded to have enjoyed less good terms and conditions than elsewhere in proportion to social regard and public resources.)

The growth of interest in culture and education in Western history of teaching has been seen in the European Union, e.g., in Cyprus with the popularisation of education in mid. 20th century -reportedly with highest percentage of university graduates by 21st.

In Western educational reforms spiritual values in education are protected by teaching religious studies in schools in American secularism (protection of religion from political influence) and by the religious affiliations of many universities; in European secularism (protecting against one’s formal dominance of the other), often with a state religion enshrined in the constitution, this is ensured by, e.g., Britain’s Education Acts’ requirement in compulsory education of religious worship by pupils at least once a month and, while British universities are not formally religiously affiliated, the availability of  chapels and chaplains to students at universities.

While preferences in education (e.g., the pedagogy based Steiner-Waldorf education for creating free moral and integrated individuals -its teachers’ and schools’ say on defining the curricula by some disagreed with, or Montessori’s pre-school and elementary school child’s self directed activities with auto-didactic equipment -regarded by some as risking raising obedient automatons), and  emphasis (be it practical skills or Emerson’s ‘thinking man’), have all had praise and criticism in the history of education and teaching and arguments continue on pragmatism and creation -v- evolution, generally Socrates’s argument that the rightly trained mind turns toward virtue carries weight in most educational systems. Basically, in every history of education, an important aim of education and the societies’ all time expectations have been on the lines of these verses (by the Cypriot teacher, the late Orhan Seyfi Ari):

” ‘I was an ape’ you say -or amphibian?
And now?! Are you not now.. ‘man’!? ”

The cultural values balance have been more reflected in the education and training of teachers in Western history of education and teaching and the status of teachers in Europe mostly in Spain, Italy and France where, without much disregard to spiritual values, school teachers’ political and ideological affiliations have been the norm in professional teaching.

Enroll In The Best Medical School In The US

If we look back in time, we will certainly laugh aloud talking about our professional considerations while we were growing up, wouldn’t we? Yes, we certainly will! Talking of choosing a profession for us, most of us dream to become eligible doctors some day. Playing with a stethoscope and other medical instruments mark impressions in the minds of enthusiasts who are ready to take up this noble profession for life. The journey of becoming a doctor is not a cakewalk; rather, it is like burning midnight oil for years to become one. Other than having interest in the subjects of biology, students shall be ready to cater the responsibility of others on their shoulders. If you are ready to leave no stone unturned and want to become a successful doctor in upcoming future, you will need to shine with flying colors in your pre-medical exams to get in the top medical school of your choice.

Like every other university or a college, medical schools also conduct preliminary exams to screen out the best students from the lot. For instance, if you want to apply for the medical schools based in the US, you need to understand the procedures to make it successfully through the cut-off lists of the top medical schools in the US. Now you have the flexibility of learning about a specific medical school through online portals. There are several websites which talk about every detail in length. Suppose you want to learn about the dormitory facility, distance between the chosen school and the city, nearby hangout places, residence facilities, genuine reviews about the school, etc. Before, you apply in a specific medical school, it is best advisable to learn as much possible about the chosen medical school on a prior basis.

In all the fifty states of the US, you will find numerous medical schools established at respective locations. The most important and difficult task is to aim for the best US based medical school to carve your medical career with excellence and brilliance. It is always better to be informed about your choices and make a decision accordingly. Similarly, selecting an esteemed medical school can add wings to your medical proficiency and advance your knowledge manifolds.

With this admirable career choice, you can certainly achieve what you desire. Also, these websites help you prepare for your pre-med exams in a more illustrative way. Some websites provide you with mock exams to make you understand the exam patterns in a more comprehensive manner. Browse online and explore about top medical schools in the US with the best reviews and testimonials.

Using Chess to Teach Math in Elementary Schools

Using Chess to Teach Math in Elementary Schools

Frank Ho

Founder of Ho Math and Chess™ Learning Centre, Vancouver

Canada certified math teacher

Chess has been heralded as a miracle to help children develop their math skills. How true is it? After my over 10 years of research and teaching of math, I think the answer is not a simple yes or no, rather it depends on how chess instruction is delivered. If chess is delivered as a pure game and taught in a way that it has nothing to do with math then the impact on math learning is minimum. On the other hand, if chess is integrated into math worksheets then the effect is more significant. This is proven from my own teaching observation and also the USA research data collected in Illinois (visit for details.).

A simple minded approach to use chess to teach math in the elementary schools is to have chess lessons in a math class and chess in this case is treated as a separate project or as a part of problem solving set. For those children who do not like to play chess, this could present problems for them since the benefits of playing chess can not be delivered to those who do not necessarily play chess. In this model, math worksheets have very little to do with chess and chess benefits on computation is very minimum.

The more robust approach is truly integrating chess into math curriculum such that when children work on math worksheets, they directly work on math and chess integrated worksheets. The trouble is how to truly mesh or integrate chess into math worksheets? At Ho Math and Chess™, we have successfully in truly integrating chess into math using our invented innovative technologies, namely they are listed as follows:

  1. Geometry Chess Symbols

2.    Ho Math and Chess™ Teaching Set

3.    Frankho Chess Mazes

4.    Frankho IQ Chess Math Brainpower Workout

5.    Math and Chess Integrated Workbooks


Our research and experiment at Ho Math and Chess™ has found out that the marriage of math, chess and IQ math puzzles has significant in improving children’s math ability. The combination of math pure number crunching problems, along with chess puzzles, word problems, and IQ puzzles give children the opportunities to expose an array of problems of pattern, table, diagrams, symbols, equations, and figures. Children tend to get involved more in their thinking process with integrated materials. It is this kind of deep thinking process which truly raise children’s math ability. The truly integrated worksheet of math, chess, IQ puzzles also is more challenged for children. Most of children like integrated worksheet more than pure computational style worksheets.

To get the true benefits of using chess to teach math in elementary school, it requires the key which links math and chess. I have found and discovered the key which links between chess and math and by using the key, I have created over 20 math and chess integrated workbooks. Not only these math and chess integrated workbooks can raise children’s math marks at their day schools, they are also fun to work with and provide entertainment and challenge for children.

Home Schooling vs Public Education

For many families, home schooling children is a viable alternative to public education for several important reasons: Strengthening the family, providing adequate education, and to promote moral and religious values.

With a perceived declining in the educational quality of the public school system in America, many parents are coming to the belief that homeschooling can offer their children a better education and result in better opportunities later on in life.

Educational Effects of Homeschooling

Research on homeschooling thus far strongly supports the thoughts of homeschooling parents. An extensive nationwide study showed that home schooled students outperformed their public and private school counterparts in every category. In fact, many homeschool students are enrolled in a grade level that is higher than their counterparts of the same age.

Home schooled children have a higher rate of high school graduation, a higher rate of college attendance, and a higher rate of college graduation.

Homeschooling is About More Than the Education

But for some families, a better education isn’t the only reason to homeschool. Protection from the harsh world that encourages deviation from a successful path is another, as is the opportunity to strengthen the family.

The teen years are an extremely important time in the family building process. Spending six to eight hours away from the home can be very detrimental to a teen’s ability to cement family relationships. Over time, subtle changes can erode family relationships, especially during the more tumultuous adolescent and teen years. By providing a homeschool education, parents can prevent this erosion and help strengthen the family bond.

Additionally, many people believe that public education is not up to the standards that a home school education can provide. No one is more invested in a child’s education than his parents and a home school curriculum can help a child’s ability to learn. For instance, a school teacher may grade your child’s paper and tell him which answers are correct, and which are incorrect and leave it at that. But parents who are homeschooling their children, can spend time to explain to them why the answers are right and wrong, in order to help them learn more thoroughly.

Also, many parents believe that a child’s educational curriculum should include not onlyacademic learning, but also the teaching of morals, ethics, and values. According to recent polls, about 77 percent of Americans identify themselves as Christians. Christian values are an important part of our functioning society and providing children with home schooling is a great way to ensure that they are social and moral values in addition to academic learning.

Essential factors for selecting the UK Immigration consultants

You might have encountered questions as to how and what needs to be done in a scenario when your Visa application is on brink of near rejection. Most of applicants become paralysed simply on the idea that their Visa application has been summarily rejected, let alone the very thought of selecting the UK based Immigration consultant. And those applicants who even reach to the levels wherein they start thinking of hiring a professional Immigration law firm, their decision is arrested due to several vague thoughts. Often, such individuals get themselves strangled into train of circumlocution. On the flip side, such applicants should look seriously and give a thought on hiring services of professional Immigration consultant.  But, even here there is a stop point. How should the applicant be assured of his or her choice? Here are few parameters that must be kept in your mind while hiring the services of Immigration consultant:

•         Licenced and certified from OISC
•         The practise should be focussed on Immigration and Asylum Law
•         The Immigration consultant should have good understanding on your Immigration case, in particular
•         The Immigration lawyer should talk to you not like a professional, but like a friend
•         He should emphasise on providing personalised guidance, besides other factors
•         The professional lawyer should not hesitate in divulging a precisely clear and honest estimate of total fee
•         The consultant should be affordable and comes within your budget
•         The conduct of consultant should not be unethical, deceitful or for that matter farfetched

Role of the Immigration consultant

Immigration consultant has a different role to play than what is usually played by any other consultant, say for example the educational consultant or the business consultant or the financial consultant. As it is clearly suggestive, Immigration consultant will always concentrate on providing on legalised help to prospective applicants who are just planning for Immigration, but require guidance to move ahead successfully through the entire Immigration process.

The role of immigration consultant, speaking in general, follows closely with that of legal adviser or counsellor to foreign citizens and immigrants who need to interact with Immigration authorities.  The consultants play major role in providing professional advice and get quick, enterprising guidance on valuable points like Visa Applications, Green cards, Citizenship and Naturalization, Deportation issues, and working out methodologies to create employment for non-citizens.

In plain terms, the Immigration consultant is engrossed in offering advice to prospective group of applicants, who have interest or have already made the application before Visa office.The consultants are Immigration lawyers, who at times, make appearances in front of Immigration judge or jury, in a scenario where the applicant is facing Immigration hearing. In several cases, the Immigration lawyers also present the testimony between Immigration and criminal laws.

Reasons for hiring professional Immigration consultant

Many applicants need services of professional Immigration consultants for various needs. Here are few important needs that you should concentrate upon:

•         Assistance for submitting Visa application before the designate authority, in this case, it is the Visa office
•         Help in making the applicant understand importance and sensitivity of Immigration law
•         Work on the complex frontiers where the Immigration and Criminal law come closely together
•         If the Immigration applicant has initiated the Visa application process, but is confused as to how he or she should proceed further on it, the Immigration consult would help
•         If the applicant wants to set up his or her extended business in foreign country
Do not delay your decision on hiring the services of Immigration consultant. Keep the above points in your mind when making the selection of Immigration consultant, and you will feel sheer confidence when applying for a particular Visa.

Post-Baccalaureate Programs: A Great Springboard Towards Medical School

Every year, thousands and thousands of students seek med school admissions to achieve a career in the field of medicine. With this high a competition, your application needs to stand out from those many thousands of others. For a successful admission to a medical school, post-baccalaureate programs have proven to be a great way to accentuate your credentials. For those who don’t know, a post-baccalaureate program is full-time, one-year certificate program to help graduates complete the prerequisite academic qualifications required for a career in medicine.

There are three main categories of post-baccalaureate programs that you can undertake, depending on your needs and academic qualifications:
1. For students who have not taken a pre-medical course.
2. For students who have already taken a pre-med course and are looking to increase their GPA.
3. DIY courses at local colleges or universities.

The easiest and the most helpful way to complete a successful application for both post-baccalaureate programs and medical school, is availing the services of consultants and advisors. These consultants help you in every step of the admission process. Since every course has different application requirements, the consulting is customised and tailored according to your needs. By signing up for their sessions, you can use it successfully complete the application process in a few simple steps:

  • Application Analysis: Every school is looking for particular things from its applicants. Consultants does an exhaustive analysis of your resume and advise you on ways to enhance the application.
  • Where To Apply: Additional to the analysis of your application, the consultants also provide an assessment of your chances of gaining admission to a particular school, and compile a list of suitable schools, based on the strength of your application and preferences.
  • Essay: Admission committees at schools read thousands of applications each year, so you need to make yours stand out. Personal essays are a great way to differentiate yourself from the group. The consultants help you edit and structure your personal statement, so that it gets strengthened and most importantly, enable the committees to single out your statement out of the lot.
  • Recommendation Letters: Colleges and schools around the world require recommendation letters. So, getting an enticing recommendation from the right person is crucial. Consultants help with this step too.
  • Mock Interviews: Consultants set up mock interview sessions, so that you don’t get the blues when you are going to attend the real one. By practicing the right answers for commonly asked questions, you can master the interview process in no time.

A post-baccalaureate program is a great springboard to medical school admissions. With the admission process getting harder and harder each year, hiring a consultant will go a long way in helping you eventually secure admission to your dream school. Ensure that the consultant has years of experience, because a highly experienced consultant will do a better job at ironing out all the minor faults in your application.

Building The Foundation Stoner Of Career From A Chennai International School

Advent of information technology has resulted in shrinking of the globe. Overlapping the geographical and social boundaries, people are now able to approach job, education, business and other areas of career building in overseas countries with ease and convenience. Thus the entire career building process has assumed an international flavor. Therefore the education and training also need to be international in nature. A qualitative Chennai international school can help career seekers appropriate training and orientation for career building.

Features of International School
There are numerous international schools across the globe and in the past most of them were in western countries. But in recent times educational system in India has made great strides and several international schools have come up in the country. Leader in the field have been the metropolitan cities like Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, and Chennai. Finding the bestinternational schools in Chennai that would offer the required academic platform to jump into career building process would be the best bet for any career aspirant.

Diversified Student Enrollment
Usually any of these schools including the Schools in Chennai would have diversified student enrollment. They have students from various parts of the world besides the native students and that gives them their true international characteristic. It is not uncommon seeing students from various countries from Africa, Middle East, neighboring countries of Asia and even from advanced countries of Europe and America studying in these schools in Chennai.

Learned International Faculties
Like diversified students the best international schools in tamilnadu also have faculties and other staff with international characters. That means the faculties are internationally reputed and they have already earned name and fame in the topic they are teaching in the schools. The faculty clan also includes best teachers from India who have already assumedinternational character and have become known in the educational circles internationally.

Different Type of Curriculum
Not only are the student and teacher’s clan different in the Chennai international school but also they have a completely different type of course curriculum befitting their international stature. The curriculum is a blend of traditional and contemporary courses. It does not mean that the course curriculum completely ignores the residential courses. Instead it takes them as the foundation stone for building up the structure of best curriculum for the school.

Criteria of International School Chennai
International conference on education held in 2009 in Italy outline the necessary criteria for constituting an international school as follows.
•    Education of students would be transferrable.
•    Student body would be multinational as well as multi lingual.
•    The school should have international curriculum.
•    It should have international accreditation.
•    Transient as well as multinational teacher population.

Medium of studies in best International Schools in India should be English and there are also facilities for learning other foreign languages like French, Latin, and others. This is necessary so that multi-communal students won’t have any problem while studying in such internationalschools.

Right Way to choose Right institute


Admission consultants in Delhi




The moment we click on google we find a list of institutes that are providing numerouscourses in various fields. Institutes are not leaving any stone unturned to market their product . Now the big question is “How to choose the right institute” .


Should we take the help of google and make google my consultant ??  the answer is NO.


When you go for consultation the consultant will ask you a list of questions .


What your academic score is ??

What subjects are you good at ??

What is your goal for education ??

How much are you willing to spend??

And many more



On the basis of all these questions the consultant will be suggesting you the best suitable course and institute . The consultant go through a lot of filtration before giving you the final suggestion . Does google filter out all the details before suggesting you ??



Our consultant at Admissiondunia provides you with the best consultation after scanning yourcomplete education history and future goals.  Admissiondunia has gained popularity as on of the best admission consultants in delhi. Here at admission dunia we not only help you filter our the best institute for you but also guide with the process of enrolling in the programme.


Our presence is more than 7 yr old in counseling and guiding students.


For affordable education help you get placed in various in top institutes in countries like India, China, Russia , Nepal and Phillipines . Whereas if you are not forced to study in these countries due to monetary constraint we suggest you some countries like Canada, UK, New Zealand , USA and Australia.


You can contact us on 9711991224.



One of our partners review:-

Education is one thing that is worth investing at any point of your life. The value of a good education is too precious and you will never regret for spending your time and money for education. Majority of us focuses more at getting better education and make our life more solid and secure. If you have got the proper education and talents they you are bound to succeed in any part of this world and this is what makes education more important in ones’ life.

A lot of students are forced to go to different places in search of better education as most of the countries are not having quality higher educational institutions. The lack of quality education in a country forces the students to go for abroad education and there are a lot of countries which offers better education system in different branches. Depending upon the various educational branches, students opt for different countries for pursuing their higher education.

A Good Educational Consulting cares for your Child’s Future

Educational consultants don’t promise student’s admission to a specific school. They do, then again, help them with the school hunt to discover schools that are a solid match and moderate in the meantime. Educational consulting Philadelphia likewise furnish data and help with money related guide and grants. They realize that a few universities are more liberal with budgetary guide and grants and urge students to incorporate a couple of these on their school list on the off chance that they are a decent match. Educational consulting Philadelphia keep your child sorted out with a specific end goal to meet all due dates for applications, supplements and monetary guide and grants. Students acknowledge having a calendar and finishing an application so that there is a lot of time to audit it before it must be submitted. This offers them some assistance with feeling more in control of the school affirmations process.

Schools all have diverse application due dates from November through June and numerous won’t acknowledge applications on the off chance that they arrive late. Most teachers trust that additional time and thought requirements to go into school arranging and offering understudies with the school some assistance with searching. Employing, educational consulting services would help with this procedure has seemed well and good to numerous folks and has offered their understudies some assistance with making better school choices. A standout amongst the most critical occupations of an educational counseling firm is a guide. He/she guarantees make fruitful match in the middle of understudy and schools/colleges abroad. These counseling firms are likewise called affirmed instructive organizer.

Consequently, a training counseling helps the family/understudies in settling on instructive choices. This might incorporate finding an abroad school/college enlistment that is solid match for the understudy. Better advisors don’t promise position as proposals, and might recommend elective alternatives. Individuals use the administrations of instructive experts in different ways: – Parents know educational specialists have nitty-gritty information about the school/colleges abroad as well as about tenets, regulations, documentation, methods about getting affirmation, preparing visa applications, endeavoring Embassy Interviews and social environment and scholarly notoriety of the school/college arranged in a remote nation. Numerous folks don’t feel they can serve as a manual for school for their young person. This is a genuine sympathy toward families. Numerous are swinging to educational consulting services why should filling this crevice. They have the mastery to help school destined students with the school look and application process. They additionally have the energy and the time.

Home School Education – Advantages And Disadvantages

Why Parents Choose a Home School Education

An increasing number of children today are receiving a home school education. The reasons for making the choice to homeschool their kids varies from family to family but there are three main reasons why parents are removing their children from the public school system and giving them a home school education.

The first reason is that the public education system in the United States is struggling to provide a proper education for the nation’s children with out of date text books, run down school buildings and inadequate equipment. Provision of a home school education enables the parents to have control over the quality of the educational materials used by their children and the general conditions in which they are educated.

The second reason is that parents wish to assume more control over the influences their children will be exposed to. This is often on the basis of religious grounds but, very often, it is simply because a home school education will ensure the child learns the values upheld by the family and is taught from an early age what behavior is appropriate. Unfortunately, many public schools have a poor reputation for instilling good discipline in students. This often results in badly behaved children disrupting lessons and preventing their peers from getting the full benefit of classes. Discipline and the upholding of proper standards of behavior is an important part of a home school education.

The third reason many parents choose to give their children a home school education is fear for their safety. Violence is on the increase everywhere and the public school system has not escaped this trend. Violence in the public education system is getting worse and the individual acts of violence are more serious. Since the shocking events at Columbine High School there have been further tragedies involving firearms where teachers and students have been injured or killed. A home school education ensures the safety of children who would otherwise be seriously at risk of harm.

The Disadvantages of Opting For Homeschooling

Providing a home school education is not simply a matter of parental choice. In most cases the state education board of the state in which the family resides will have to approve a decision to give a child a home school education. The person taking on the responsibility of homeschooling must be certified to be a home teacher, the curriculum must follow the state curriculum, and the text books and other educational materials to be used must be approved by the state. Although this might seen like undue interference in what is a matter of personal choice, the state has a responsibility to ensure that all children receive an adequate standard of education and checks will be made to ensure that any child being kept away from public school is being properly educated.

A home school education might mean that a child is deprived of certain opportunities which would have been available within the public school system. There could be difficulties in providing facilities for athletic children to realize their potential. Musically talented children could be similarly disadvantaged. In some states there is provision for children receiving a homeschool education to take part in amenities such as being able to attend sports lessons and join after-school clubs. However, the level of assistance provided to homeschooling parents is not uniform and varies a lot from state to state.

The final potential disadvantage to affect children receiving a home school education is that they will not develop the social skills which will be important as they grow up. Social interaction with their peers and with adults outside the family is essential if a child is going to grow up with a properly balance personality and a reasonable level of social skills. These developmental issues can be fairly easily overcome if the child lives in a state where homeschooling parents are given support and the child receiving a home school education is accepted into classes and extra-curricular activities.

The decision to keep a child out of the public education system is not one any parent would make lightly and any weighing up of the pros and cons must take into account the level of support the state will provide. However, if the public school system continues to deteriorate, the number of children receiving a home school education is bound to increase.